Various diseases of the respiratory system in children
Diseases of the organs of respiration in children is very common. There are numerous species and subspecies. According to statistics, almost 70% of all childhood diseases falls on the airway. They are in many ways similar to the development of pathologies in adulthood, but possess certain features associated with the physiological development of the organism.
Different diseases of the respiratory system in children has a different etiology and pathogenesis. Some of them are difficult to attribute to dangerous diseases, but some of them are very serious complications and cause of child mortality. No matter how flowed the respiratory disease, they require careful and prompt treatment, especially in childhood lays the Foundation of a healthy body for life.
Features of pediatric respiratory system
Childhood diseases of the respiratory system have their own specifics due to the peculiarities of the developing organism. Such features include:
- Narrow nasal passage, and the child under 4 years is the almost total absence of the lower nasal passage.
- Possible difficulty in breathing through the nose as a result of the growth of the nasopharyngeal lymphoid tissue at an early age.
- Increased risk of false croup due to the short vocal cord and narrow glottis.
- Smaller depth of children's breathing.
- The increased density of the lung with weak lightness.
- Underdevelopment of the muscles of respiration.
- Too rapid respiratory rate.
- The unstable nature of the respiratory process in newborns.
- Change the type of breathing in the process of growing up.
- Facilitated the narrowing of the bronchial lumen compared to an adult.
Full development of the respiratory system of the person only gets to 14-15 years, and before that age the risk of disease is quite high. In addition, in childhood the most severe genetic predisposition, congenital abnormalities, adverse external factors.
Diseases of the respiratory system in children
Diseases of the respiratory system are diverse and result from infections, allergic reactions and exposure to various precipitating factors.
The main types of respiratory pathologies in children include rhinitis, laryngitis, sore throat, bronchitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, pneumonia, pulmonary mycoses, diseases of the pleura and the diseases belonging to the group of acute respiratory viral infections.
- Rhinitis (runny nose) isan inflammation of the nasal mucosa and can be an independent disease or a symptom of other diseases. Is classified into 2 main types: infectious and vasomotor rhinitis. Infectious type can be acute or chronic. It develops under the influence of pathogenic viruses or bacteria in the presence of precipitating factors such as hypothermia, stress related diseases, mechanical and chemical effects. Vasomotor rhinitis is mainly represented with allergic rhinitis caused by hypersensitivity of the nasal mucosa to certain exogenous allergens (pollen, animal dander, dust, etc.).
- Laryngitis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the larynx, characterized by spasmodic processes on the background of catarrhal phenomena. The disease is divided into acute and chronic. In early childhood the most common false croup – acute laryngitis in the form of stenosis of the larynx, commencing suddenly as a fit of coughing and breathing problems. From other acute varieties note abscess (purulent and catarrhal (simple) types. Children can develop chronic laryngitis as a result of growth of adenoids, which is accompanied by hypertrophy of the mucosa of the larynx with the appearance of infiltrative nodules and vasodilation. For kids characteristic and a form of edematous laryngitis, which appears after contact with a foreign body in the trachea or bronchi.
- Pharyngitis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the pharynx in acute or chronic form. The disease is accompanied by pain, tickling and discomfort in the throat. The disease becomes infected by pathogenic viruses or bacteria. The most widespread finds catarrhal pharyngitis against SARS. The main pathogen is the rhinovirus. Viruses often becomes a first stage, the continuation of which is infection with bacteria.
- Tonsillitis is an inflammation of the palatal, lingual, or nasopharyngeal tonsils, and is most often inflamed tonsils. The most common pathogen is Streptococcus type A. Differ in 3 main varieties of the disease: catarrhal, follicular and lacunar tonsillitis. Catarrhal (most common) develops very rapidly and in an acute form (pain when swallowing, swelling, temperature). The follicular type is characterized by prolonged course and severe complications. When lacunar angina is observed in the temperature to 40 degrees and the deterioration of the General condition.
- Chronic tonsillitis usually is a continuation of a sore throat or other infectious diseases and describes a prolonged inflammation of the Palatine and pharyngealthe tonsils. Basic shapes – lacunar, sclerotic and parenchymatous tonsillitis. In its development the disease can be in two stages: compensated (latent infection) phase and the phase of decompensation, accompanied by recurrence of angina and abscesses.
- Bronchitis is a disease of the bronchi an inflammatory nature, usually characterized viral mechanism of infection. The acute form of the disease is quite common in infants and children under the age of 3 years. Most often it is generated by the viruses of influenza or measles, adenovirus, and Mycoplasma, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, pneumococcus. Predisposing factors: hypothermia or overheating, polluted atmosphere. The child children bronchial constriction of the respiratory channels is predetermined by the swelling of the mucous membrane and secretion of the bronchial lumen.
- Pneumonia is a very dangerous disease as a result of inflammation of lung tissues for infectious areas, leading to impaired pulmonary function, the change of gas exchange in the body and respiratory failure. Acute form of pneumonia common in children under one year of age and due to the above physiological characteristics of a child. At an early age, the disease is very difficult and often becomes chronic.
The symptoms of respiratory diseases
Despite the diversity of forms, diseases of the respiratory system have some characteristic symptoms:
- pain in throat or chest when swallowing or deep breathing;
- high temperature;
- shortness of breath, sometimes turning into suffocation.
Cough is a mandatory symptom of the disease. It can be dry or with phlegm, in severe forms – with purulent discharge or blood.
Cough can be a continuous or periodic nature
Given the prevalence of respiratory infections at different ages, it is important to prevention of respiratory diseases in children.
One of the best preventive measures – fresh sea air saturated with iodine. Such prevention is well able to clean and disinfect the lungs and the entire respiratory system.
If it is not possible to visit the sea, you should often breathe the fresh air, regularly ventilate the room.
Since the age of 12 is a good prevention can be regular use of antivirus tools – Echinacea and Siberian ginseng. In anyage for increase of immune defence should be introduced in the diet is sufficient vitamins. In winter time it is necessary to eliminate the possibility of hypothermia.
Home treatment and prevention of diseases can be performed with inhalations and baths with the addition of herbs such as eucalyptus, pine needles, juniper.
In the room you can apply a fragrance lamp, diffusing aroma of essential oils and has antibacterial effects.