The scheme of treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis
Pulmonary tuberculosis treatment is a long process. Tuberculosis - the deadly disease transmitted by airborne droplets. The disease is caused by bacteria of the genus Mycobacterium. Its wide spread the disease is got with the development of industry in Europe. She was ill residents of densely populated cities. In those days tuberculosis inevitably led to death.
In the middle of the 20th century, in connection with the creation of antibacterial drugs, the number of cases fell sharply, the epidemic was stopped. However, at the end of the 20th century the situation worsened. Mass of tuberculosis associated with HIV infection and unsanitary condition of the homeless shelters and correctional facilities. The treatment of this disease in our day is complicated by the fact that some strains of bacteria have developed resistance to many antibiotics.
The first symptoms of tuberculosis
After infection in the organism, the overall health of the person deteriorates, a cough. He is usually accompanied by separation of a small amount of purulent sputum in the morning. Further development of the disease leads to an increase in the number of sputum and the appearance of blood in her veins. Another characteristic symptom of tuberculosis is excessive sweating. Perspiration so profuse that the patient has to change clothes and bed linen several times during the night. This condition is associated with a slight increase in body temperature.
Dyspnea develops when the accumulation of air or fluid in the pleural cavity. The accumulation of fluid in the pleura in some cases is the only symptom of the disease. Approximately 95% of cases the accumulation of air and fluid in pleural cavity associated with tuberculosis. The diagnosis in this case is somewhat complicated, but an experienced doctor is able to recognize the signs of the initial stages of tuberculosis and appropriate treatment.
During primary infection with tubercle Bacillus, pathogenic microorganisms into the lymphatic system. If the immune system to cope with their destruction, the bacteria go into a down state and further spread of the infection occurs. In children may be swollen lymph nodes, leading to compression of the bronchi. This leads to cough and atelectasis. With the further spread of bacteria in the body there is an increase of cervical nodes and the accumulation of pus. In the later stages pus may break out.
title="the tubercle Bacillus - the cause of tuberculosis" alt="the tubercle Bacillus - the cause of tuberculosis">Infection can develop in other organs. Kidneys and bones are most commonly affected by TB authorities. Renal tuberculosis may be asymptomatic, while infection partially destroys the kidneys. The process then moves to the bladder, at this stage, the disease can be signs of other infections of the genitourinary system.
In men it affects the prostate, epididymis and VAS deferens, women - the fallopian tubes and ovaries. All this leads to the development of infertility. With the genitals the inflammatory process moves to the tissue of the peritoneum, causing tuberculous peritonitis. Symptoms of peritonitis may range from mild abdominal pain and fatigue to acute pain on palpation.
Tuberculous arthritis is another dangerous complication of pulmonary tuberculosis. When inflammation of the joint loses its function, be pain. Usually the infection affects the large joints. Mycobacteria are found in the intestines, adrenal glands and the walls of the aorta. If you lose this important artery a possible rupture, leading to death. When the penetration of bacteria into the shell of the heart muscle develops pericarditis. The accumulation of fluid in the pericardium disrupts the rhythm of the heartbeat and causes oxygen deficiency. It is noted dilatation of the neck, respiratory distress, low-grade fever.
Tuberculous meningitis - a deadly complication. It most often occurs in the elderly and young children. The patient noted a high fever, headaches, drowsiness. In severe cases, the patient falls into a coma. Paralysis of the occipital muscle disrupts the movement of the head and neck.
If time does not begin treatment, irreversible brain damage. Even if the patient has improvement, it's a tuberculoma - a tumor-like formation, does not disappear by itself. It can cause muscle paralysis and requires immediate removal.
In children, M. tuberculosis can infect the spine, bones of arms and legs. As infectious foci in the spine and bones may not be visible on x-ray is required for other diagnostic procedures: CT or MRI. If treatment is not started in time, multiple vertebral collapses, which leads to the immobilization of the patient.
In developing countries, the tubercle Bacillus may enter the body by ingestion of contaminated dairy products and to penetrate into the intestine, where with the flow of lymph the infection can spread to other organs, including the lungs. Intestinal tuberculosis occurs rarely, it happens on the background of weakeningof the immune system.
The diagnosis of tuberculosis
The active form of the disease is identified based on the results of the analysis of sputum. A negative result means no bacteria in the body. In the early stages of tuberculosis occurs in a closed form, the pathogens are not present in sputum.
Fluoroscopy helps diagnose the late stages of tuberculosis, x-ray image clearly visible foci of collapse of the lung tissue. A sputum culture on a nutrient medium allows to determine the sensitivity of the pathogen to certain drugs.
As outside the body of human tubercle Bacillus multiplies slowly, the test results can only be obtained in a few months. Such an analysis is the only method of determining the sensitivity of bacteria to antibiotics.
How to treat pulmonary tuberculosis?
In pulmonary tuberculosis treatment lasts continuously. Appointed by the several anti-TB drugs which the patient should take at least six months. However, drug therapy is not enough for full recovery.
Assigned to the patient inhalations, physiotherapy course, physiotherapy and respiratory gymnastics.
Many patients assigned to surgical treatment of tuberculosis resection of the affected area of the lung. Indications for surgery are: the presence of cavities, foci of infection, scarring of the structures and tumors. Surgical treatment combined with a regular intake of anti-TB drugs. There are several methods of medical treatment of lung tuberculosis.
A ternary diagram was developed at the beginning of the development of antituberculosis chemotherapy and has become a classic. The treatment uses streptomycin, para-aminosalicylic acid and isoniazid. A four-part scheme is applied when the resistance of the pathogen to these drugs. It includes the administration of streptomycin, ftivazid, pyrazinamide and ethionamide. Pathcomponent scheme is the most modern and effective method of treatment. To inbound in the previous scheme medicines are added to the fluoroquinolones. The treatment of TB data means implies their long-term (over 2 years) Hello, what's reflected in the cost of therapy.
During chemotherapy the patient should qualitatively to eat. An important role for the prevention of anemia, exhaustion and radiation.
Hormones in tuberculosis is rarely assigned in view of the fact that they significantly suppress the immune system. Testimony to their destinationare acute inflammation, severe intoxication of the organism. The tubercle Bacillus does not tolerate high oxygen concentration, therefore, tuberculosis is treated with hyperbaric oxygenation. To cure tuberculosis in its advanced stage is difficult, the patient may require complete removal of the lung.
Therefore, medical attention is necessary when the first symptoms of this dangerous disease.