What is focal pulmonary tuberculosis?
Focal pulmonary tuberculosis is probably not a primary disease but a consequence of already migrated earlier disease. In this case the primary tubercular foci can be cured, and there comes the secondary stage of the disease. According to statistics, every second case of TB is identified focally. This person may not feel its progression and flow, and diagnosed with such a disease only when the mass fluorographic examination. But if a more in-depth examination, we can identify a number of characteristics that the patient simply did not attach much importance and did not notice the symptom for a long period.
When clinical and radiological examination can distinguish two main types of focal tuberculosis. This is a fresh maglagay tuberculosis and chronic. In any case, the healing of tissues affected by tuberculosis, in these places there are patchy education. All of these foci are replaced by fibrous tissue and in the future may be active, as residual disease.
Causes symptoms of focal tuberculosis of the lungs
Pathogens of such diseases as tuberculosis are mycobacteria of the genus acid. Today there are about eighty species of such pathogens.
They are both in water and in soil, humans, animals. From all kind of pathogens tuberculosis is usually caused by bovine and human form of the pathogen. The first group of bacteria is most often diagnosed in residents of rural areas, there you can catch, and avian tuberculosis. This type of disease is typical for people with weak immune system.
Focal tuberculosis for a very long time is considered a social disease. The fact that the severity and complications of this disease directly depend on how a person lives, what it eats, the condition of his immune system, what are the conditions of life surround him.
The main causes of lung infection are the following:
- General weakness of the human body;
- poor diet and substandard products;
- adverse living conditions;
- the level of migration in the region;
- the standard of living in society.
- the number of people without a permanent place of residence.
According to statistics, most often of focal tuberculosis in males, the stronger sex are diagnosed with the disease two to three times more often. While the age range of the lesions of the bodydisease also exist. This is the period from twenty to twenty-nine and thirty to forty.
Secondary focal tuberculosis and its symptoms
This disease is characterized by wavelike manifestations of symptoms. This means that the body signals about the problem and exacerbations, zatihanie, when almost all the signs disappear completely. But even in the moments of exacerbation of all the symptoms may not be expressed too bright, so the person often doesn't pay to change habitual state.
But there are still symptoms that can be identified and which determine how a severe case of the disease:
- low-grade fever for ten days;
- dry cough with allocation of a small amount of sputum;
- excessive sweating, especially at night and tachycardia;
- the weakness of the whole body;
- in cases of the beginning of disintegration of pulmonary tissue appear the symptom of hemoptysis.
When the aggravation of the disease stops, then all of the above symptoms are not so noticeable. But there are cases when signs of intoxication can long to show themselves. A frequent complaint is fatigue and decreased performance.
Treatment of focal tuberculosis
To consult a doctor is extremely important in the period of exacerbation of the disease. That's when he will be able to determine whether you have wheezing in the lungs after coughing, sent for x-rays and accurately diagnose the stage and progression of the disease.
The identification of focal pulmonary tuberculosis is carried out with a slight muscle soreness in the propagation of the disease - about shoulder girdle. Changes of lymph nodes in a patient is not observed. If the development of tuberculosis disease is still at an early stage, the doctor will be able to listen hard breathing with a light cough. Also at this point may appear throwaway, barely audible wheezing.
But the laboratory tests will be a different picture of the disease. In the early stages a blood test does not help to identify anything suspicious. But during the infiltration levels of ESR will tend to increase. In this case the left shift will show about 15% of band forms. In the same way, by analogy is defined and lymphopenia.
If you start diagnosis or treatment of focal tuberculosis already in the chronic form, the doctor will identify the lesions of the tissues with size from 3 to 6 ml In the lung tissue the disease leaves the wrong parcels or rounded shapes, which have sharp intensity and crisp edges.
In focal tuberculosis, doctors often prescribeanti-bacterial treatment. If this is a fresh form of the disease, the final resorption will occur one year after the start of medication. The situation can be monitored on x-rays, which will be clearly visible as the tissue of the lungs is restored, but sometimes there are still traces of the lesions. In rare cases, even after a year of treatment the affected areas are not fully restored. The lesions may be encapsulated, then the light develops a rough fibrosis. So as soon as you are diagnosed with focal tuberculosis, you need to immediately begin to treat the disease, at whatever stage of development it was.
Measures to prevent tuberculosis
In order to reduce the incidence of tuberculosis, it is necessary to take preventive measures not only in the scale of one person or one family, but all the people and the government should create favorable conditions for recovery.
Among the measures for the prevention of disease and focal tuberculosis are the following:
- preventive, anti-epidemic activities that will be introduced in accordance with the established in this settlement environment;
- continuous conduct public awareness of the annual medical examinations that will help in the early stages to identify the disease and prescribe the necessary treatment;
- providing patients with all necessary medicines for the treatment of focal pulmonary tuberculosis;
- preventing the spread of infection and limiting contact with healthy people sick, it means that the treatment should be in special hospitals that can isolate the sick person from the society, to provide adequate medical care, the doctors should be specially trained and have high qualifications in this field;
- annual compulsory medical examinations for all specialties, especially for agricultural workers, pastoralists, workers in the sphere of public catering;
- mandatory vaccination of newborns, which should be held up to 30 days from birth of the child.
Tuberculosis is one of the leading places according to the degree of development and progression among all diseases. But for the successful and rapid treatment it is enough just to identify and carry out correct and effective treatment. Even in the event of a secondary form of the disease, focal pulmonary tuberculosis can be completely cured under condition of observance of all recommendations of the doctor.
The favorable outcome is carried out after proper treatment in the future, you won't noticeno symptoms of the disease again.
There are cases when the effects on the lungs remain calcification or residual fibrosis, but the disease is still in retreat. But if you refuse treatment or admission to hospital in the later stages of development, the prognosis is unfavorable, the TB will go into serious stage, which will require large material costs and many months of treatment.