The main types of pulmonary tuberculosis
The types of pulmonary tuberculosis are varied. Tuberculosis is an infectious disease, the causative agent of which is the tubercle Bacillus. Contracting this type of disease can people of any age. Typically, infection occurs through airborne droplets. Extremely rare method of transmission is possible through food or from mother to baby.
The basis of the clinical classification is based on the following principles:
- clinical and radiological features;
- the presence of discharge;
- extent of its course.
Classification is based on 4 main sections:
- Form of tuberculosis.
- The main feature of all tuberculous process.
- Possible complications of the disease.
- Changes that may remain after the disease is cured.
Types of tuberculosis
Since TB is an infectious disease, then the person who got infected, may be the distributor, and sometimes may not be dangerous for your environment. There are two varieties of the disease.
- The open form. When conducting laboratory analysis - sputum smear - the patient found bacteria that are the direct agents of the disease. A person can infect many people.
- A closed form. This form is far more common. It is characterized by the fact that the patient does not pose a threat to people, as it does not emit the infection into the air and, accordingly, is not a spreader of tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis can be divided into primary and secondary.
To provoke the development of primary tuberculosis can contact the carrier. In this case, the inflammatory process in the lungs had not yet begun. Symptoms can be hidden for several days, sometimes even weeks, due to the fact that the changes that occur in bodies so small that diagnose them with a single x-ray is almost impossible.
The main indicator of there is a disease or not, is the Mantoux test. If there is inflammation of the samples, the increase in size, this suggests that the result is positive, it means that the disease are.
Secondary tuberculosis begins to progress for the reason that remnants of the infection on the old lesions started to become more active. To progress, the disease begins due to the fact that there are many favorable conditions surrounding the patient, but it in no way depends on the age category. Symptoms may be unmarked, sometimes similar to symptoms of otherdiseases, for example:
- sudden loss of appetite;
- loss of body weight;
- the increase in body temperature;
- excessive feeling of weakness and fatigue.
In the period when the disease begins to worsen, the patient complains of a dry cough, which gradually turns into a phase of remission. At this time, a false view that the disease has receded, but the improvement will last only a couple of weeks. Then again begins to manifest acute phase and the symptoms will become much harder than the first time. If the time to enlist the help of qualified experts, they will appoint correct treatment that will allow you to avoid what will begin irreversible changes in the lungs.
If to assess how TB is spread, we can distinguish certain forms of pulmonary tuberculosis.
Focal tuberculosis. Sometimes this form of disease may also be called a limited tuberculosis. The main characteristic is based on the fact that there are small pockets that are formed in a certain area of one or two lungs and take 1 to 2 segments. Focal tuberculosis is not too pronounced symptoms with the clinical course. Occur focal soft tissue with slightly blurred edges.
Infiltrative tuberculosis. For this form of tuberculosis characterized by the presence of inflammatory process in the lungs, usually exudative in nature. Diagnosed with this form of the disease with the help of carrying out x-rays. More often the period of development of the disease with many additional diseases, such as pneumonia, bronchitis, long flu. The most prominent symptom manifestations can be considered coughing up blood in the normal condition of the patient.
Caseous pneumonia. Characterized by this form of the disease that in the pulmonary tissues, there is inflammation of the cheesy type of decay. Main symptoms:
- General intoxication of the organism;
- strong catarrhal phenomena in the lungs;
- strong discharge.
This disease arises as a consequence of the previously mentioned forms of TB.
Lung's a tuberculoma. Can be divided into 3 clinical forms of tuberculosis.
- A progressive form. At this stage begins to occur collapse of perifocal inflammation, which begins around tuberculoma.
- A stable form. No radiographic changes in the process of patient observation or experience rare exacerbation with no signs of progressiontuberculoma.
- Regressing form. Decreases tuberculoma, which in the process unit or group homes.
Disseminated tuberculosis. This disease is characterized by the fact that there are many specific lesions in the lungs. As soon as a disease starts usually exudative-necrotic reaction, which is later transformed into an inflammatory process.
This kind of disease is detected very rarely. But when the disease starts to progress, flows in a fairly acute form.
In the course of the disease can cause severe complications, such as anemia, heart or lung failure.
Miliary tuberculosis. When infected with this form of tuberculosis occur generalized lesions, which usually occur in the lungs, liver, spleen, intestines. Rarely, this form of the above disease affects only the lungs.
Destructive forms of tuberculosis
Cavernous pulmonary tuberculosis. Characterized by the presence of the formed cavity, which is represented on the radiograph of an isolated ring-shaped shadow in the lung. The cavity is formed in infiltrative or disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis. The decay phase is characterized by:
- cough with phlegm;
- moist rales in the lungs;
- blood and bacteria in sputum.
Fibro-cavernous pulmonary tuberculosis. It is typical for a thick-walled fibrous, often deformed cavity, coarse fibrotic changes of the lung tissue, deformation of the bronchi, the displacement of the mediastinum, persistent, or recurrent baculoviridae, complications such as hemoptysis and pulmonary hemorrhage. Patients the tuberculosis pose the greatest threat to healthy populations require isolation and long-term chemotherapy.
Cirrhotic pulmonary tuberculosis. This is the ultimate, but not the most dangerous form of pulmonary tuberculosis. It is often fatal for the patient, but epidemiologically not too dangerous, because often sick oligonicella. Treatment of such patients is problematic because tuberculostatic not penetrate into the abnormal tissue. Unilateral forms cirrhotic tuberculosis can be cured surgically.
Other types of tuberculosis
Tuberculosis of bones and joints. Quite common in children equally. There is a loss of the middle part of the spine that causes the development of kyphosis. There is such symptoms as: pain, swelling in certain areas of the spine that is damaged.
Tuberculous meningitis. If time does not begin to treat the diseaseit can lead to coma.
Tuberculosis of the genitourinary system. There is a loss in the kidneys. In the process of urination is detected pus. If the time to start treatment, a favorable outcome happens in a large percentage of cases.
For all types of tuberculosis detected the disease early and timely start of correct treatment will help to minimize the risk of complications.
To self-medicate is strictly prohibited, as it will not lead to anything good.