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The symptoms and treatment of asthma

If diagnosed bronchial asthma, treatment should be aimed at addressing the main precipitating factors. This pathology is associated with hypersensitivity of the bronchi and by exposure to various irritating agents. Often asthma is detected in childhood and adolescence. An asthma attack can lead to serious consequences, that is why it is important to know the basic methods of treatment of this disease and the ways of eliminating panic attack. What are the etiology, clinic and treatment of the disease?

klinicheskaya kartina bronhialnoj astmy

Especially bronchial asthma

Asthma called chronic disease characterized by attacks of breathlessness accompanied by increased bronchial reactivity. Of great importance in the development of this inflammatory disease plays in the development of allergic reactions. The pathogenesis of the disease is quite complex. In susceptible people when exposed to certain exogenous factors, there is a spasm of the bronchi, there is increased secretion of mucus, inflammation develops. All this contributes to impaired patency of the bronchi, which leads to difficulty breathing.

In the development of the inflammatory process involved the following stages: the mediators of inflammation, cells of the immune system, autonomic nervous system, calcium. Narrowing of the bronchi occurs due to the formation of mucous plugs, contractions of the muscles of the bronchi, hypertrophy of the muscle membrane, reduction in cells of the ciliated epithelium of the bronchi. Asthma is diagnosed in children and adults. This disease affects more than 200 million people worldwide. The prevalence of the disease in Russia is 4 to 10%. Children get sick more often. Among young adults more common in males.

Varieties of asthma

allergicheskaya prichina bronhialnoj astmyTo asthma treatment to be successful, you must know the forms of this disease. There are the following types of asthma:

  • allergic nature;
  • non-allergic;
  • mixed.

In allergic type of asthma in the study to establish the allergen, which occur seizures. It can be a: house dust, food, plant pollen. A variation of this form of the disease is atopic asthma.

Not always the development of this disease is due to an allergic reaction. For example, aspirin asthma. It is manifested by intolerance to the drugs from the group of NSAIDs, including aspirin. Rarely, non-allergic form of the disease is the result of hormonal changes.

Often diagnosed combined form.

Depending on the severity of asthma emit light,moderate or severe degree. It can also be constant or intermittent. With intermittent asthma, mild seizures occur less than once in 7 days. When a permanent form, their number increases from one day to one week. The average severity of disease observed in day and night attacks of a frequency of more than once 7 days. If several attacks during the day, there is a severe disease.

Etiological factors

ozhirenie kak stimul astmyBefore addressing the treatment of bronchial asthma, is required to establish possible causes of the disease. They are endogenous and exogenous.

To internal (endogenous) predisposing factors include:

  • heredity;
  • excess body weight;
  • sex.

Fat people are broken pulmonary ventilation. In addition, there is atypical standing diaphragm - it is located higher than people of normal weight. All this may provoke the disease.

As for sex, in children with asthma get sick more often boys. Among adults at risk include women.

Crucial environmental factors. These include various allergens (dust, aerosols, pollen, moldy fungi), microorganisms (viruses, bacteria), foods (citrus, mushrooms, chocolate, nuts), medicines, household chemicals, high or low temperature.

Asthma can be a professional pathology. It often develops in people in contact with different fine-dispersed dust (wood or metal), chemical workers. There are a number of factors that can cause spasm of the bronchi. These include stress, Smoking, heavy physical exertion, inhalation of dry or cold air.

Asthma is most often diagnosed in residents of large cities. In this situation it is of some significance air quality.

Clinical manifestations

odyshka - priznak astmyThe first symptoms usually observed in childhood. Asthma is a chronic course with periods of remission and exacerbation in the form of asthma attacks. The main manifestations of the disease are:

  • shortness of breath;
  • shortness of breath;
  • wheezing, audible at a distance;
  • a feeling of tightness in the chest;
  • cough.

In severe cases, possible cyanosis (cyanosis) of the skin, indicating the onset of respiratory distress. Additional symptoms - palpitations, drowsiness.

The main manifestation of asthma - asthma. It occurs in most cases on the background effectsof precipitating factors. Is the place marked seasonality. Exacerbations often occur in spring and autumn. A panic attack can be so strong that often requires hospitalization of the patient. The attack is manifested by remote wheezing, difficulty exhaling, feeling of shortage of air. Immediately before the attack may experience the following symptoms: mucous nasal discharge, coughing, sneezing.

Some patients diagnosed with cough variant of bronchial asthma. The main symptom in this situation is a cough. The attack lasts from several minutes to several hours. If the attack fails, there is a strong pain in the chest. Objective signs of asthma attack are:

  • lengthening exhalation;
  • forced position of the patient (sitting with support on hand);
  • the changing shape of the thorax;
  • the presence of wheezing and whistling;
  • extension and embroiled the gaps between the ribs;
  • listening to the boxed sound auscultation.

Asthma after exercise

astmaticheskie pripadki ot nagruzokA type of disease is asthma physical effort. This condition is manifested by shortness of breath after physical exertion (running, long walk, playing sports) when you have a history of asthma. Physical activity is an important precipitating factor in the attack. Bronchospasm in this situation alone disappears within 30-45 minutes. Begins to spasm after 5-6 minutes since the beginning of the load. Symptoms of attack are observed after the cessation of stress.

This form of the disease often is diagnosed at a young age (children and adolescents). There is a theory that the relationship between stress and asthma due to dryness of the bronchial mucosa and their cooling. Established that the inhalation of moist warm air symptoms of bronchospasm fast disappearing. The main complaint of patients is paroxysmal cough.

Status asthmaticus

Serious danger to the life of patients is the condition as status asthmaticus. This complication of asthma. This condition is a result of prolonged attack. The lethality of his appearance is about 17%.

tyazhelyj astmaticheskij pristupOn the background of prolonged attack occurs swelling of the bronchioles, accumulation of mucus, which eventually leads to oxygen starvation of tissues. Asthmatic status, unlike a simple attack, it is difficult to stop bronchodilators drugs.

There are three stages of development of this dangerous condition. At the first stage the patientis in the mind. It may take a forced posture to facilitate their own Wellness. Observed bruising nasolabial triangle, sweating. Suffocation are more pronounced than in the simple attack. In the second step of the reaction becomes inhibited. Marked cyanosis of the fingers, the increase in volume of the chest due to the accumulation in it of dry air. In the blood increases the content of carbon dioxide. The pulse is frequent, breathing, learning, pressure is lowered. Critical condition is observed in the third stage. Possible cardiac arrest and coma. Status asthmaticus can lead to pneumothorax.

Diagnostic measures

Treatment in bronchial asthma is determined by a physician after diagnosis. Diagnosis includes:

  • a survey of the patient or his parents;
  • external inspection;
  • auscultation of lungs and heart;
  • measurement of pressure and pulse;
  • the study of the external breathing;
  • x-ray examination;
  • conducting load tests;
  • the examination of the sputum;
  • the bronchoscopy.

bronhoskopiya dlya opredeleniya astmyIn the physical examination study detected changes in heart rate, shortness of breath, wheezing. The most important are the results of spirometry and peak flow Metria. In this situation, the estimated peak expiratory flow, vital capacity of lungs.

There may also be test with bronchodilators. X-ray examination in adults and children is performed to exclude other pathologies (tuberculosis, pneumonia). To identify asthma physical effort organized tests with the load (running, Bicycle ergometry).

To determine the severity of asthma is the blood gases.

Treatment tactics

Methods of treatment of bronchial asthma depend on its shape.

If it's asthma of physical effort, the treatment involves a decrease in physical activity, breathing exercises, avoidance of inhalation of dry and moist air. Immediately before exercise, you can apply the medicine. In the treatment of bronchial asthma of this type is impractical to include inhaled corticosteroids and xanthine it is inefficient.

Modern treatment of this disease, not associated with physical activity, involves the use of the following drugs: leukotriene receptor antagonists, glucocorticoids, kromanov and monoclonal antibodies.

ksantiny dlya podavleniya astmyFor the expansion of the bronchi in case of lung failure shown beta-agonists and xanthine.

Physical therapy for bronchial asthma ineffective.

Curable if bronchialasthma? To get rid of this disease completely is almost impossible. Treatment is aimed at improving the quality of life and reducing the frequency of attacks. Principles of treatment of bronchial asthma is aimed at excluding contact with irritants.

In this situation you want to exclude from the diet of hypoallergenic products, do not take aspirin and other NSAIDs, regular cleaning indoors to avoid contact with animals.

There are special institutions called school of asthma. They experts tell us, is it possible to cure asthma by yourself, you need to use the inhalers. An important place in the treatment of the disease is a respiratory gymnastics.

Equally important is rehabilitation in bronchial asthma. After a course of drug therapy, the patient is recommended to stay in a sanatorium or preventorium. Good health effect give a stay in the salt room. You need to remember that even during the rehabilitation of patients with bronchial asthma need to have the inhaler medication dilates the bronchi. Homeopathy to treat illness only with a doctor's permission.

Herbal medicine for bronchial asthma may have a positive effect.

In asthma it is important to follow all doctor's recommendations.