What causes laryngitis in children and how to treat it
Laryngitis in children - inflammation of the larynx, which is diagnosed quite often. This is the companion viral infections, allergies.
Features age the anatomy of the pediatric larynx
Influence on the mechanism of developing laryngitis:
- The larynx is the link of the pharynx and trachea. The frame of the upper segment of the respiratory system create cartilage.
- This hollow body in children is higher, and its diameter is narrower, the length is shorter than in adults. In the larynx the air enters, which goes to the lungs from the nasopharynx.
- This breathing tube is similar to an hourglass. The bottleneck is below the vocal cords, through which we can speak.
A narrow passage for the air:
- In infancy a narrow lumen of the larynx is 4 mm, from preschoolers to about 7 mm, and in puberty about 1 cm.
- The top end of the breathing tube grows unevenly. In different periods of her life, this increase occurs with different intensity. In children this section of the respiratory system is small in size.
- The depth of a child's throat up to seven years higher than it is wide. Primary school the width of the body of the voice becomes more depth.
Muscle spasm in the throat:
- The upper area of the respiratory system is very sensitive in babies. The muscles of the larynx are drastically reduced. Occurs stenosis - narrowing of the lumen of the upper segment of the respiratory tube. The larynx becomes much thinner. Air difficult to pass through it.
- The larynx of girls and boys up to three years is the same length. At the age of 5-7 years, during puberty there is a noticeable growth of the organ. Dimensions of the larynx of boys exceed the parameters of the breathing tube in girls.
- With age, the larynx of the child falls below the.
The tendency of the mucous membrane of the larynx to swelling in children:
- Vocal cords located in the upper segment of the larynx.
- On mucous laryngitis inflamed.
- Swelling of loose tissue gentle tissue of a hollow organ. Its volume is greatly increased.
- The lumen of the upper segment of the breathing tube in the child first year of life reduced by 75% in the case of increasing edematous mucosa of the larynx 1 mm.
- As a result, while the disease develops hoarseness.
Etiological factors of laryngitis
- In violation of natural defense mechanisms of the body's immune cells attack its own tissues. The result of this barrier becomes dangerous autoimmune laryngitis,inflammation of the hollow organ voice.
- Increased sensitivity to allergens.
- Provoke the development of disease pollen, chemical powders, paints, tobacco, odorous spray.
The physical preconditions for the development of acute laryngitis:
- The meal, which irritates the throat.
- Cold drinks.
- Dangerous for a child smoke, dust.
- Increased voice load: shouting, singing, loud conversation.
- Local and General hypothermia, breathing through the mouth.
- Inhaling hot steam can trigger the development of stenosing laryngitis.
- All these factors lead to the development of inflammation, damage to mucous membranes, violation of local immunity.
- In the future there is the possibility of infection.
- The most common causal factor are viruses. These non-cellular infectious agents impress the vocal cords. In target cells of the loose mucosa of the larynx get viruses that cause respiratory disease. They lead to the development of the inflammatory process, edema, croup syndrome.
- Certain parts of the respiratory tract affects the particular virus. Adenovirus infection is accompanied by a runny nose, redness of the throat. Parainfluenza affects the larynx. Flu disrupts the epithelium of bronchi and trachea.
- Various fungi, bacteria: Klebsiella, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus are often the causative agents of laryngitis.
- Prolonged antibiotic therapy weakens the immune system of the child.
The children's symptoms of laryngitis
Features of the development of the clinical picture:
- The pathological process may be of primary character. After penetration into the organism of an infectious agent that emits toxic substances that gradually the mucosa of the larynx inflammation develops. The prevalence of chronic focus for bronchitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis develops secondary infection.
- On the background of inflammation of the deteriorating General condition.
- Laryngitis in children breathing difficult, because the larynx is not narrowed.
- Redness of the mucous membrane.
- Rapidly develops a barking cough.
- Loud talking does not allow the hoarse voice.
- Laryngitis could be the beginning of croup. At night, the baby can suffocate.
Age specificity of the disease:
- The peculiarities are observed, significant differences in pathology in older schoolchildren from the painful process of babies up to three years.
- At an early age, quickly developingcroup syndrome - acute stenosing laryngotracheitis, which is characterized by a dangerous narrowing of the larynx. In this case there is a medical emergency.
Varieties of the disease
In modern medicine there are acute and chronic laryngitis.
There are several types of pathology:
- Stenosing laryngitis in a child complicated form of the disease.
- Allergic laryngitis - cause of stenosis of the larynx. Increases rapidly swelling.
- A long chronic course - feature of the hypertrophic form of the disease.
- Cough, slight sore throat is characteristic catarrhal laryngitis.
- Very rare atrophic form. Damaged mucosa leads to long loss of voice.
Croup syndrome in children
Laryngeal stenosis is dangerous because of sudden narrowing of the trachea or larynx.
- Croup is constrictive laryngitis, which occurs in infectious diseases.
- Before true croup were more likely with very dangerous diphtheria. Today, a common virus, parainfluenza often becomes the cause of the disease.
- Usually the first kid is found with this infection for up to two years, when he begins to actively communicate with people in the kindergarten, on the Playground, in the store.
The risk of the disease:
- Not all children are predisposed to the development of the disease. Some children are very often accompanied by SARS croup syndrome. Only the inflammation of the lining of the larynx develops from the other kids.
- Limfatici is a special group of children with enlarged lymph nodes and tonsils. They often suffer from colds, exudative diathesis. Laryngitis linfatico very often ends with the development of stenosis of the larynx. The tissues of the body such children largely are inclined to swelling. Their lymphoid system is increased excitability.
- Allergic diseases predispose to the development of false croup.
It is accompanied by symptoms in the background of the manifestations of infectious diseases:
- In the larynx there is swelling and Hyper-secretion, accumulate large amounts of mucus. The child is hurt and scared, the result is a spasm of the muscles of the larynx.
- Shortness the passage of air through the larynx. In the rump very hard to breathe. With the defeat of the lungs sick child is hard to exhale.
- Dysphonia - a voice disorder is the result of dysfunction of the vocal cords. The voice becomes weak, hoarse.
- Rough and dry cough, which is similar to barkingdog. It is painful, paroxysmal in nature.
- The deterioration of the child in the night is characteristic of stenosis of the larynx.
In most cases, the first grains is the most difficult because the body reacts violently to the virus. Most parents don't know how in this situation to help a sick child.
The treatment of the disease
Basic principles of therapy:
- At home treatment for laryngitis in children is carried out at the initial stage of the disease. 2, 3, 4 stages need hospitalization.
- It is necessary to eliminate the pathogen. If laryngitis develops against SARS are assigned to the antivirals. When a bacterial infection an effective antibacterial drugs.
- A sick baby should drink plenty of liquids, vitamin complexes.
- Antipyretics are used at high temperature.
- Swelling allow antihistamines, antispasmodics.
- To observe the voice mode is a prerequisite.
- To get rid of the disease will help inhalation using compression nebulizer and the addition of decongestant drugs, saline, and mineral water.
- If you have any constrictive laryngitis, shortness of breath, there is a very dangerous situation. So do not self medicate.
- Only a doctor after examination can diagnose the laryngitis in your baby. To determine the cause of the disease, conduct more tests.
- Medical care if ill have kids at the same time, immunologists and otolaryngologists. However, first aid should behave wisely parents.
- Child care is very desirable. When the baby is nervous, he's scared, repeatedly increases the risk of spasm of the larynx.
Laryngitis in children is a serious disease. If the child had a wheeze in the throat, there's a temporary loss of voice, parents must be alert.
At the first symptoms you need to call the pediatrician and strictly follow his appointment.
With an experienced doctor for laryngitis no chance.