How it is expressed and treated for chronic rhinitis?
Chronic rhinitis - a disease of the upper respiratory tract, caused by inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity. Occurs due to the harmful effects of the environment and effects on the body various kinds of infectious and viral pathogens.
Pathogenesis and types of the disease
Today there are several types of chronic rhinitis:
The main causes predisposing to disease, the following:
- anatomical or functional changes of the proportions in the nasal cavity: anatomical or acquired defects of the nasal cavity, deviated septum, congenital defects;
- irritants, long-acting nasal mucosa: noxious fumes, dust, various odors;
- physical factors contributing to impaired function of ciliated epithelium and dryness of the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity: a dry or hot air, hypothermia;
- concomitant inflammatory diseases of the sinuses: chronic tonsillitis, sinusitis, sinusitis, adenoids, narrowing the lumen of the rear of the nasal passages;
- inflammatory processes in the nasal cavity due to allergic reactions;
- prolonged use of drugs with vasodilator effect;
- local violation of blood circulation in connection with autoimmune kidney disease, prolonged constipation, disorders of the endocrine and nervous systems, various kinds of injuries of the nose;
- diffuse changes of the thyroid gland, resulting in hormonal changes the body;
- violation of arachidonic acid metabolism that plays an important role in the human body and is one of the components of the cell membrane.
Symptoms of the disease
Chronic rhinitis, regardless of its kind, manifest the following common symptoms:
- dryness of the nasal mucosa;
- the drainage of mucous discharge at inner walls of the larynx;
- the formation of bloody crusts in the nasal cavity;
- frequent sneezing;
- violation of olfactory function;
- the distortion sounds and tone of voice;
- discomfort in the throat, tickling, caused by irritation from mucous flowing down the contents of the nose,at the inner wall.
- frequent fits of coughing;
- stuffy ears.
The main formschronic rhinitis
Hypertrophic rhinitis is manifested by pronounced hypertrophy of the mucous membrane of the turbinates, resulting in sudden and permanent dysfunction of nasal breathing. Also frequently involves the lacrimal-nasal canal that leads to compression of its holes. This contributes to constant watery eyes, resulting in possible development of the inflammatory process in the lacrimal SAC. Symptoms:
- apparent violation of nasal breathing;
- disorder of olfactory function of the nose;
- reduced hearing ability;
- violation of sound pronunciation with a nasal tone of voice.
During the inspection observed compaction and swelling of the turbinates, reduction of the lumen of the nasal passages.
Catarrhal form of chronic rhinitis, the main symptoms are manifested in congestive inflammatory process of the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity. Marked swelling of the turbinates and excessively eye-catching slimy contents of his nose. The symptoms of the catarrhal form is usually expressed moderately. Symptoms:
- alternate congestion of both halves of the nasal cavity;
- violation of respiratory function caused by the change of the position of the body;
- reasonable allocation of purulent character;
- violation of olfactory function.
In atrophic form of rhinitis is atrophy (thinning) of the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity. Observed the secretion of the mucous content of the nose, viscous in consistency when dry which formed the so-called crust. When trying to resolve cortical formations easily compromised integrity of tissues. In case of severe damage of the mucosa, the formation of easily traumatized erosive sites, which in turn, if untreated, often become infected. Symptoms:
- dysfunction of sense of smell;
- pathological crusts on the nasal mucosa;
- dryness of the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity;
- intermittent slight bleeding.
Allergic rhinitis is caused due to increased reaction of the nasal mucosa to the possible allergen. Penetration into the nasal cavity of the substances that cause allergic reactions, leading to spontaneous sneezing and increased secretion of mucus a watery nature. The symptoms of allergic rhinitis may be seasonal or occur throughout the year. Symptoms:
- itching in the nose;
- burning sensation;
- constant sneezing;
- inflammatory processes localized in the mucosa of the nasopharynx.
Vasomotor form of the disease is characterized by the manifestation of paroxysmal sneezing, nose mucous secreted abundant nature, a violation of the respiratory function. The main reasons are the following: sharp temperature changes, due to the constant stress, tiredness and fatigue, high blood pressure. These manifestations are due to diseases and common disorders of the autonomic nervous system.
To diagnose chronic rhinitis, assigned a survey with the aid of rhinoscopy, which is carried out using a special nasal dilators - laryngeal and nasopharyngeal mirrors. In the inspection process, the patient noted the seal nasal mucosa and hyperemia. The nasal wall is completely covered with mucous contents, and nasal passages is filled with a Muco-purulent fluid.
The mucous membrane is inflamed, with increased dryness and pale color. There is an increase in body turbinates and narrowing of the nasal passages, significantly impairing breathing. In some cases, pathological mucosa covered with crusts of a grayish color, sometimes formed small erosie, easily damaged and prone to bleeding.
The patient is assigned additional studies for an accurate diagnosis:
- to determine the patency of the nasal passages assigned rhinopneumonitis;
- endoscopic examination of the nasal cavity for the assessment of the internal structures;
- fluoroscopic study of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses to determine the presence of inflammation in the corresponding organ.
How to treat pathology?
The basis of pharmacological therapy in this disease, includes the prescription of the following therapeutic agents:
- Vascular thinning drops. However, prolonged use of these drugs can cause high blood pressure and thinning of blood vessels making them fragile.
- Antiseptic and anti-inflammatory ointment for the nose. The primary aim of such funds is the removal of inflammation and relief of the General condition of the patient.
- In the presence of crusts on the mucous membrane it is advisable to use sprays softening actions or the use of nasal drops on an oil basis.
- Depending on the severity of the disease are appointed antibacterial therapy.
Surgicalintervention is required if there is severe hypertrophy of the mucous membrane of the turbinates.
In such case it is a surgical procedure aimed at partial or complete removal of enlarged hypertrophied mucosa of the turbinates. It's also possible prompt elimination of the causes of sinusitis: the removal of polyps and adenoids, operation for correcting defects of the nasal septum. For additional strengthening of local therapy is frequently given physiotherapeutic treatment methods. The main ones are:
- Electrophoresis. To reduce swelling of the nasal mucosa and facilitate breathing.
- A simple and effective way to warming up of the nasal cavity, is the UV lamp is warming up.
- Microwave therapy greatly accelerates the healing process.
- Treatment under the influence of a constant magnetic field with magnetic therapy. Strengthens the immune system, improves circulation and General condition as a whole.
For children the disease is quite dangerous, contributing to the violation of all the functions in child's organism. In case of untimely treatment of chronic rhinitis can cause impaired mental and cognitive development of the child. The basic cause of this disease are frequent acute rhinitis on background of acute respiratory diseases.
It is important to note that self-treatment can render harm to the health of the child, so at the first sign of illness reasonable access to a specialist.
As preventive measures, helping to reduce the risk of disease, are the following:
- a warm soothing bath with essential oils, complying with the rules of use;
- regularly wet cleaning in the premises and prevent the accumulation and dissemination of dust;
- inhalation of herbal solutions.
Properly selected treatment process will prevent the transition disease into a chronic form.