Causes and treatment of lobar pneumonia
Croupous pneumonia is infectious-allergic disease pathogens which become pneumococcus I, II, rarely III and type IV. Practice shows that in recent years, lobar pneumonia often occurs as a result of effects on the body streptococci or staphylococci.
The causes of the disease
Reasons of development of this unpleasant and dangerous disease is, as a rule, quite a weak immune system that cannot cope with the infection in the body of an adult or child. In addition, the cleaning function of the bronchi in such cases, the disturbed, and the permeability of the alveolar membranes is too high, can not protect the light from getting into these dangerous viruses.
Lobar pneumonia in children or adults may occur as a result of hypothermia, cold transferred, so the majority of all cases of disease can be attributed to winter and spring time of year. On a more severe course of pneumonia will affect what the human body can be intoxicating as a result of alcohol, drugs, Smoking. Factors that cause pneumonia can be severe fatigue, poor environment, poor working conditions. All this makes the human body weaker and more defenseless.
Recent statistics shows that the disease has spread worldwide and now it can be found in all latitudes. Thus in areas with cold or constantly changing climate the risk of getting pneumonia several times higher. At the same time, the number of patients with lobar pneumonia has declined, the same can be said about the number of deaths as a result of this disease. Getting sick can people of different age, but, as a rule, the causative agent of lobar pneumonia most often affects people aged from 18 to 40 years.
The stage of development of the disease
Lobar pneumonia in contrast to the usual affects entire lobe of the lung. Very rare localization occurs in a separate segment or part of the lung of the person. The spread of the inflammatory process in most cases does not go further only because of what is happening antibiotics. With the defeat of an organism by a virus, the lungs of the person passes through four stages of development of the disease:
- Stage of tide lasts one to two days. During this period, there is a very sharp hyperemia and serous begins to appearthe exudation.
- Stage red obucheniya. At this stage the alveoli of the affected lung are filled with a mass of fibrin in which there is a lot of red blood cells. The affected part of the lung becomes brown color with a reddish tinge, it is possible to point out some seals that make this a light similar to the human liver.
- Stage gray obucheniya. In the alveoli very quickly increases the number of leukocytes. In turn, begin to fade the red blood cells. This stage is observed in a patient already on the fifth day of occurrence of pneumonia of the croupous type.
- The stage of destruction. At this stage there is resorption of fibrin in the alveoli, and disappear leukocytes.
The symptoms of the disease
Lobar type of pneumonia in most cases occurs in the lower lobe of the right lung. It should be noted that the inflammatory process develops, and on the pleura of the lung. The first symptoms occur quickly enough, the man is strong and chills.
As practice shows, in the morning the person feels perfectly healthy, but in the second half he very rapidly begins to feel cold and chills, there is a sharp discomfort that causes the to immediately leave everything and go to bed. Chills there is a maximum of one hour, then there is a very high fever. As a rule, the temperature jumps sharply to 39-40 degrees. Several days of fever, all the time shivering gives way to a very sharp rise in temperature.
If you do not use for antibiotics, some will be easier only for 10 day after the first signs of lobar pneumonia. It was then that a very sharp and critical drop in body temperature, which remains so throughout the day. If you use antibiotics to get rid of the problem will be in the first phase of its development. In three days the temperature returns to normal and the feeling will become good again.
In the first few hours after onset of pneumonia sick a person can feel quite strong pain in my side, the intensity of which increases while breathing or with a strong dry cough. On the third day there is a very thick mucus, which is with difficulty separated. The typical symptoms of lobar pneumonia - the allocation of "rusty" sputum up to 200 ml per day, and too fast breathing. Breathing is superficial, because deep breathing is unrealistic due to dry pleurisy, which also occurs in the developmentlobar pneumonia.
In some cases, the patient, especially in children, can cause nausea and even vomiting. Lost appetite, the tongue swells a little and becomes very dry. Could be constipation or bloating. It is also becoming a noticeable increase in the blood of bilirubin, which stains the skin a yellowish color. This means that there has been a violation of the health of the liver.
Treatment of lobar pneumonia
The person who is ill lobar pneumonia, usually sent by doctors to the hospital. If the disease is very hard, the patient has a delirium, it requires constant supervision of specialists. Very important role plays correct and very careful care of man. During that time, that fever, in any case can not get out of bed. Thus the b & b also serves the ship that the patient did not get up even to pee.
The person has to be in a slightly raised position. This can only be done with special beds or, if you put several big pillows. Definitely need to ventilate the chamber below the air was fresh and of course in sufficient quantity. The human diet, which is more lobar pneumonia should include an easy, but quite high-calorie foods. Also, you need to drink more liquids: teas, juices, coffee, milk, soups. Additionally to eat a soft-boiled egg, crackers and vitamin C in all its manifestations.
The fastest way to get rid of this disease is the intake of sulfa drugs and various antibiotics. It is necessary to accurately observe the dosage, which was prescribed by a doctor. Otherwise, the treatment efficiency may be reduced, or there will be a variety of complications.
To drugs did not cause intoxication, every time they need to drink at least half Cup of fluid. Ideal would be if the patient was given an alkaline mineral water.
Thus it is possible to reduce not only the frequency of taking the medicine, but the dose that a sufficiently positive impact on human health.
In addition, along with the antibiotics that can trigger the growth of yeast fungi type Candida and can cause intoxication, allergic reaction, specialists prescribe treatment with Nystatin.
In the last few years in order to remove the swelling of the lungs at croupous pneumonia, specialists use only sulfonamides that are long enough.
If the case is severe enough, the patientin urgent need of oxygen therapy, which is carried out using a special oxygen tent. If you do this procedure for ten minutes, during this time, it is possible to eliminate arterial hypoxemia. In addition, thus can be removed from the patient's dyspnea, normalize blood pressure by blood oxygen saturation, to make the pulse slower.
Obligatory condition of treatment is medications that improve vascular tone. If the case is severe enough that intravenous administration of the special drug strophanthin.
Once you have the first signs of development of croupous pneumonia it is necessary to immediately start treatment, because all can result in serious complications and even fatal, especially when it comes to children or the elderly.