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The reasons for the development of acute pneumonia and its treatment

Acute pneumonia is an inflammation of lung tissue leading to the development of respiratory distress and impaired gas exchange. This disease can manifest itself in two forms: in the form of an independent disease or as a concomitant pathology other complications.

problema pnevmonii

The causes of the disease

Pneumonia of any form transmitted primarily by airborne droplets. This occurs when ingested bacteria, microorganisms and intracellular parasites: streptococci, viruses, intestinal and Haemophilus sticks, chlamydia, Legionella, fungi, Candida and other pathogens. In addition, scholars have identified a number of reasons related to the emergence and development of pathology are presented. They decided to include the following factors:

zloupotreblenie alkogolnymi napitkami - prichina pnevmonii

  1. An improper diet.
  2. The General weakening of the immune system.
  3. Smoking.
  4. The abuse of alcoholic beverages.
  5. Chronic diseases of the respiratory system.
  6. Pulmonary pathology.
  7. Chronic bronchitis.
  8. Destruction of the immune system.
  9. Infection of viral nature.
  10. General hypothermia.
  11. Chronic fatigue.
  12. The depletion of the body.
  13. Diseases of the endocrine system.
  14. The use of drugs.
  15. Cardiovascular disease.
  16. Previously suffering of serious illness.
  17. The adverse ecological environment.
  18. Deferred surgery.
  19. The age factor (most susceptible to this type of pathology young children and the elderly).
  20. The presence of the body foci of chronic infection.

Acute pneumonia in children can be triggered by the following reasons:

hronicheskie infekcionnye zabolevaniya - prichina vozniknoveniya pnevmonii

  1. The presence of intrauterine infections acquired during embryonic development.
  2. A congenital heart defect.
  3. The polyhypovitaminosis.
  4. Pulmonary pathology.
  5. Rickets.
  6. Congenital perinatal pathologies.
  7. Chronic infectious disease.
  8. Dystrophy.
  9. The tendency to allergic reactions.
  10. The lymphatico-gipoplasticheskaya diathesis.
  11. Prematurity of the fetus.
  12. The lack of the necessary sanitary conditions.
  13. Immunodeficiency.
  14. Congenital defectiveness of the bronchi.
  15. The presence of herpesvirus in the body of a newborn baby.

Signs of the disease

For early stagethe occurrence of a pathological process characterized by the following symptoms:

  1. Permanent cough with tendency to rise.
  2. The increase in body temperature.
  3. Runny nose.
  4. A General deterioration in the condition of the patient resembling in signs of a cold and continued for over a week.
  5. Blanching of the skin.
  6. The lack of positive results in the treatment.
  7. When taking preparations containing paracetamol, the body temperature of a patient decreases.
  8. Myalgia.
  9. Pain in the joints.
  10. Fatigue.
  11. Drowsiness.
  12. Constant lack of appetite.

povyshenie temperatury tela pri pnevmoniiIn the future, with the aggravation of the protracted course of the disease pneumonia is manifested typical signs:

  • progressive dry cough;
  • fever;
  • shortness of breath;
  • asthma;
  • the appearance of discharge purulent or mucous character;
  • severe pain in the affected lung;
  • tachycardia;
  • General intoxication of the organism;
  • the development of respiratory insufficiency;
  • respiratory acidosis;
  • a sharp decrease in the content of oxygen level in the blood;
  • impairment of cellular immunity;
  • weakness and shortness of breathing process;
  • the appearance of characteristic wheezing when breathing.

Acute pneumonia at children of early age is characterized by cardiac arrhythmias, nasal flaring and retraction of intercostal spaces during respiration.

Possible consequences and complications

Acute pneumonia often lead to the development of comorbidities and complications. To those accepted include:

anemiya - oslozhnenie posle pnevmonii

  1. Asthmatic segment.
  2. Pleurisy.
  3. Pulmonary edema.
  4. The abscess formation.
  5. Infectious-toxic shock.
  6. Hepatitis.
  7. Anemia.
  8. Endocarditis infectious nature.
  9. Glomerulonephritis.
  10. The development of so-called substance-induced psychosis.
  11. Allergic myocarditis.
  12. Sepsis.
  13. The development of DIC.

It should be clarified that pneumonia in the acute form is sufficiently severe disease, are in fourth place in terms of mortality. Therefore, the appearance of the first symptoms of the inflammatory process should immediately contact the doctor.

Methods of diagnosis

obshij analiz krovi dlya diagnostiki zabolevaniyaThe disease is diagnosed after a General medical examination and study of clinical picture. However, symptoms of pneumonia invery similar to the symptoms of TB. Therefore, avoid medical errors and resolution for extremely accurate diagnosis, the patient is assigned to the following types of research:

  1. General analysis of blood.
  2. The analysis of urine.
  3. Magnetic resonance imaging.
  4. Ultrasound diagnostics.
  5. Bacteriological analysis of fluids from the body of the patient.
  6. The x-rays. Is the primary diagnostic procedure required for the determination of acute pneumonia. If this inflammatory process is the x-rays clearly visible dimming of the lung sections, the size of which largely depends on the severity and the extent of the disease.
  7. CT.

Therapeutic interventions

Treatment of pulmonary disease should be comprehensive and chosen individually in each case. This is largely dependent on patient age, shape of flow, severity of disease, and the presence or absence of related complications. In most cases, patients have a hospitalization, but even with home treatment, the patient must provide full rest and bed rest. To fight an acute form of pneumonia generally, the following types of therapy:

medikamentoznoe lechenie pnevmonii

  1. Anti-bacterial, designed to destroy pathogenic microorganisms by certain types of antibiotics.
  2. Medication, which consists in the reception of antiseptics, spasmolytics, sedatives, antihistamines, cardiovascular and anaesthetics medicines.
  3. Vitamin therapy (especially important supplementation with a high content of vitamins of groups b and C).
  4. Physiotherapy.

To the recovery process was fast and successful, the patient should be extremely limited physical and mental stress, sleep well, avoid exposure to cold and stressful situations.

You also need to set up a proper balanced diet with a predominance of foods rich in fiber, carbohydrates and proteins. Also shown to drink plenty of liquids. During treatment the patient is advised to drink at least 2.5 liters of fluid per day.

Treatment of acute form of pneumonia is quite complex and time consuming process. However, with early diagnosis and strict compliance with all medical recommendations, a significant improvement of the condition with partial recovery the patient can be achieved 3 to 4 weeks.


Prevention of pneumonia is mainly in the followingrecommendations:

  1. Rational nutrition.
  2. The rejection of bad habits.
  3. Observance of rules of personal hygiene.
  4. General hardening of the body.
  5. Taking drugs designed to strengthen the immune system.
  6. Rapid elimination of respiratory infectious diseases in acute form.
  7. Vaccination against influenza, and also against some species of Streptococcus.

The overall prognosis of pneumonia in the presence of the required surgical treatment is quite favorable, and in most cases there is an absolute recovery of the patient. If you do not take adequate measures to prevent the development of related pathological processes, the consequences can be serious, including death.