The peculiarities of pneumonia segmental
Segmental pneumonia is a serious problem that requires immediate treatment. Otherwise it can cause dangerous complications that can cure.
Segmental pneumonia - what is it
The disease is not that other, as a very serious respiratory tract of man, which never extends beyond the specific pulmonary segment. This form of pneumonia is on the second place by frequency of occurrence in humans. In the first place is pneumonia focal type.
You will often see pneumonia, which occurs in the lower lobe of the right lung develops in most cases it in adults. It is interesting that in children with inflammation in the opposite side - left-side pneumonia. This difference is caused by a certain difference in the structure of the thorax.
In addition, there are subsegmentary inflammation and normal segmental. The difference is that in normal inflammatory process much less affected alveoli, the inflammatory process is not such a large part of the lung. It is also worth mentioning that using x-rays to determine what type of disease in the adult or the child, is very difficult. You need to do additional tests and examinations.
What is a pulmonary segment in humans
In order to understand the causes of this complex disease, it is necessary to consider the human anatomy and to know what are the segments of a human lung.
The segment of light is a small cluster of alveoli. While this cluster has in common with the body, blood supply and innervation. From other segments is separated by means of a thin interlayer, which is formed from connective tissue.
If we consider the x-ray each segment of a human lung, they are characterized by a special localization how to direct the picture, and on the side. Therefore, in order to determine quite precisely the place in which there is inflammation, you need to take pictures of the thorax in two projections.
In addition, at the time of diagnosis it is necessary to determine in what light is observed segmental pneumonia. It can do, internist or pulmonologist after thoroughly examine and study the x-rays.
This type of pneumonia occurs due to the fact that sharply reduced local protection of the organism. Such a change could result from development of a cold or after freezing. In addition, the cause of the disease may well become the agents of pneumonia that are very active to reproduce only in a particular area of the lungs.
Now, right-sided segmental pneumonia in adults develops due to the following reasons:
- there is a significant deformation of the bronchial system;
- quite frequently inflamed wall of the lower respiratory tract, resulting in defects, for example, increasing the number of connective tissue;
- immunity in this area of the body is very much reduced due to the fact that violated the processes of the blood supply;
- under the influence of nicotine is quite strong spasm of blood vessels of the lungs, and that becomes the reason for further development of the disease.
If to speak about occurrence of pneumonia in children and the elderly, the causes are somewhat different. In the first place it may be too weak immune system. To provoke the disease may pathogen, which enters directly into the respiratory system. Even if it is the most common Streptococcus, it can be the impetus for what will begin to develop inflammation in the lower part of the lungs.
The types of segmental pneumonia
Today, specialists distinguish several types of segmental pneumonia and depending on that assign the patient treatment:
- typical view;
The symptoms of the disease
About two days after human lung began to develop inflammation, begin to show the first signs of the disease. The symptoms of segmental pneumonia include the following:
- if the cause was bacterial infection, then there is a sharp increase in temperature to 39 degrees and above;
- as a result of the intoxication one feels permanent and severe fatigue, a headache, in severe cases, may experience delusions or even hallucinations;
- under the ribs you can feel pain, which occurs because of a lesion not only the lungs but also the stomach;
- begins to develop tachycardia: it says thatblood are in a large number of toxins and products of disintegration of cells and tissues;
- if there is weakness of the patient, it indicates a very severe course of the disease (in this case, the experts focus on the temperature: the higher it is, the faster it progresses the inflammatory process);
- about the General intoxication of the whole organism can be understood by what begins to stand out a very large amount of sweat at each change of body position;
- a few days later there is a strong enough cough, a lot of sputum;
- shortness of breath occurs.
Each specialist in order to prescribe the correct treatment to the patient, will pay attention to the sweating of the patient. Due to sweating, you can understand how well the human body undergo metabolic processes. In addition, the degree of sweating warns of possible fever in humans. For example, if a person began to stand out in a large number of sweat, it means that just a few minutes, pretty much raised body temperature. In this connection, you need to take the medicine against the heat.
If all the symptoms disappeared and the photographs of the x-ray also can not see anything, but there is sweating and General malaise, it indicates that the disease was not cured till the end.
In such situations, doctors may prescribe additional treatment with antibacterial and vitamin drugs to maintain the patient's body.
Allergy treatment in connection with segmental pneumonia in an adult
Pretty rare, but still in the presence of a segmental pneumonia may experience an allergic reaction. In this regard, the person may gasp and even anaphylactic shock. If this happened, you need as quickly as possible to enter the patient one dose of adrenaline and immediately take him to the pulmonary Department.
Shortness of breath in people who suffer from segmental pneumonia, arises from the fact that a small section of the lung does not participate in breathing. Other segments become larger due to the fact that the usual amount of air fits in a smaller number of alveoli. This arises from the fact that the body tries all possible ways to eliminate lack of oxygen. If there is a similar problem with the disease, the patient needs to get to the hospital and to do artificial respiration. Thus it will be possible to quickly restore the necessary for the body numberoxygen.
Inflammatory processes in the lungs is a very serious problem that requires immediate treatment. The recovery process may take a very long time, and even if the pictures of x-rays will not be visible affected areas, the disease could still not long enough to leave the sick person.
With children the situation is even more severe than with adults. The fact that the child's immunity is of reactive type. This means that just a few days after missing all of the symptoms segmental pneumonia, they can occur again and again in the more difficult and dangerous for the child form.
As practice shows, the treatment in most cases ends without complications and quite successfully. The main time to take all the necessary measures and not to run the disease.