How does small cell lung cancer?
Lung cancer is one of the hardest forms of this disease. Among all types of small cell lung cancer occurs in a quarter of cases. Usually malignant tumors begin to form in the epithelial tissue of the bronchi, and then spread across the surface of the respiratory apparatus.
Lung cancer ranked first among other types and forms of cancer mortality. According to the statistics from dying, more than half of cases. Most often lung cancer affects men, they have found the most deaths. Doctors attribute this primarily with the distribution of Smoking, heavy work conditions and lack of attention to their health. Small cell lung cancer usually affects adults at risk is the age group from 40 to 60 years.
Small cell lung cancer is found in every fourth patient, which strikes a similar lung disease. This form is quite aggressive, while the disease has spread metastases in other internal organs.
In almost all cases affects the lymph nodes located in the region of the respiratory system, then metastatic spread to the adrenal glands and liver, less in bone, and only in some cases in the brain.
- The first stage in the region of the respiratory tract, there is a small tumor. It reaches a few millimeters or centimeters. Almost not diagnosed.
- The tumor increases (can reach 6 centimeters), it becomes visible on x-ray. This stage is ideal for surgical treatment.
- The tumor may change shape and size, you may experience the lesions re-starts the lymph nodes and the spread of small metastases.
- Forecast at this stage is not comforting. Cancer begins to spread throughout the body: metastasis striking adjacent bodies can penetrate into the bones and the brain.
The causes of the disease
Causes of small cell lung cancer are similar to the factors in the emergence of all other forms of this disease.
Causes lung cancer associated primarily with the main function of this body, providing the body with oxygen. The modern environment is very aggressive to humans. The air contains a lot of carcinogens, smoke, dust, viruses and bacteria. Daily inhaling the many harmful substances, people unconsciously ruin their system of breathing. Such often leads to the developmentmalignant neoplasms.
The most common cause of any form of lung cancer, including small cell, non-Smoking, not only passive, but active. Quitting bad habits can not be an absolute defense from lung cancer, if the person continues to inhale the smoke of other smokers. Many experts believe that passive Smoking is much more harmful than active. In Europe and North America 9 out of 10 people suffering from lung cancer are or were smokers.
Cause lung cancer are also carcinogenic gases, most often radon. This colorless gas appears as in the earth's crust and in the production of uranium. When it impacts on the body's healthy cells begin to mutate and subsequently develop cancer.
Scientists have proved that in some cases the causes of cancer can be dust particles and viruses. Common household dust is unlikely to cause fatal disease, the danger occurs when a person is constantly in a dusty environment, such as at work.
It used to be that viruses can cause cancer exclusively in animals, but recent studies have shown that in rare instances they may penetrate into the deeper layers of human lung and cause mutation of cells.
Risk factors for small cell lung cancer are:
- frequent colds, which affects primarily the lungs;
- chronic diseases of the respiratory system;
- living in areas with high levels exhaust fumes and smoky discharges from factories and plants;
- work with heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, etc.);
The symptoms are occurrence of small cell lung cancer
Such a cancer lung disease arises and develops very quickly. Small cell lung cancer is small in size, but in comparison with other forms of to him enough a month to increase in size two times (for comparison, another form of the disease requires more than 3 months).
The difficulty in diagnosis of small cell lung cancer stems from the fact that against the background of rapid growth of the tumor, the symptoms are very scarce. Often people do not even suspect that he was terminally ill. While the main "bridgehead" for the formation of tumors - lung, the future patients will not feel any manifestations of the disease. Usually symptoms appear in the later stages, when the tumor begins active growth andthe spread of metastases.
The first symptoms do not indicate cancer. People can easily confuse small cell lung cancer with a simple bronchitis. Primary disease symptoms:
- coughing (often dry);
- weakness and fatigue;
- reduction of body weight;
- in some cases bad breath.
The reason for urgent treatment to the doctor becomes the occurrence of hemoptysis, in which mucus discharge in cough, blood clots. With the rapid development of the disease the amount of blood increases.
Secondary and additional symptoms lung cancer:
- the occurrence of pain in the sternum, heart, under shoulder blades;
- the change in voice, hoarseness, difficulty breathing, shortness of breath;
- blurred vision, the pupil can change its size and mobility, in rare cases, subtle changes to the color of the eyes.
Similar symptoms can be signals of other diseases of the lungs or other internal organs. That is why when Troubleshooting, it is recommended to go to several specialists: oncologist, TB doctor, neurologist and cardiologist.
Treatment and diagnosis of small cell lung cancer
Due to the rapid development and minor symptoms to detect small cell lung cancer at an early stage is difficult. Diagnosis begins with x-rays of the lungs. This procedure helps to determine the form of cancer.
To determine the stage of development of tumors and development of tactics of treatment the patient needed a CT of the chest, brain and abdomen to determine the size of the tumor and possible metastases. Additional methods of diagnosis of small cell lung cancer is a biopsy of the bronchi or lungs, and also taking material from metastases when available.
The most common and effective treatment for small cell lung cancer is chemotherapy. It should start immediately after diagnosis. Refusal of treatment gives the patient more than a month, depending on the stage of tumor development, after which comes death. Chemotherapy prolongs the patient's life for several years. In combination with radiation therapy and surgery in the early stages may cure and return to a normal lifestyle.
Treatment of interstitial lung cancer is a rather heavy procedure. The patient for several months under the strict supervision of medical oncologists.
Chemotherapy, radiation therapy and receiving anti-tumor drugs can cause many side effects and complications in the form of severe infectiousdiseases.
The immune system of the patient during the period of comprehensive treatment is reduced to almost zero, so some even prohibit direct contact with the external environment.
In the absence of remission to kill the cancer cells cannot, so doctors recommend treatment for the relief of the patient. On the latest stages of cancer are radiation and surgery to remove metastases in the internal organs, primarily the brain.