Signs and treatment of peripheral lung cancer
Cancer of the respiratory system that develops in the bronchioles, is called peripheral lung cancer. Clinically, it is only after the beginning of its germination in the leaves of the pleura and major bronchi. It causes a high percentage of death from this kind of guidance.
Varieties of peripheral cancer of the respiratory system
One of the main distinguishing features of the processes of tumour growth in the respiratory tract is a variety of its forms.
The main forms of processes of tumour growth in the lungs are:
- of cortico-pleural;
- cancer of the upper lobe of the left lung;
- peripheral cancer of the upper lobe of the right lung;
- nodular form of lung cancer.
Of cortico-pleural form of the tumor is a tumor that have an oval shape, which provides your growth is not a single node, and grows in the chest and localized in the subpleural region. Its histosols malignant neoplasm is a squamous type of cancer. The tumor often has a homogeneous structure with bugristoye on the inner surface. The contours of the tumors are unclear. The tumor is able to grow in the adjacent ribs, and in the body located next to the vertebrae of the thoracic spine.
Cavitary form is characterized by its asymptomatic. This type of cancer most often detected in the later stages of its development. Late stage of development of this disease are characterized by the irreversibility of neoplastic processes.
For this type of cancer is characterized by the formation of localized single-chamber abdominal neoplasms having a spherical shape with roughness on the outer surface, and the fuzzy contours of the region.
In the process of increasing the tumor focus size, cavity, these tumors also grow in size. The result of tumor growth is observed thickening of the walls of tumors and pulling up the sheet of visceral pleura in the direction of tumor formation.
Cancer of the upper lobe of the left and right lung tumor characterized by the formation of tumors, which renthenznimky have fuzzy contours of irregular shape. Tumors have a heterogeneous structure. As a result of development of tumor process, the roots of the lungs become dilated vascular trunks, and the sinuses are free.
If you encounter this typecancer the lymph nodes are not enlarged.
The nodular form of cancer is formed from the terminal bronchioles. The main clinical manifestations of the disease emerge after penetration of cancer into soft lung tissue. The tumors are nodular shape and a sharp edge with a roughness on the surface.
Causes and periods of progression of the cancer in the lungs postprocess
Most often, the development of this disease is due to a carcinogenic effect on lung tissue of certain substances. Such exposure is associated with an impact on human factors of environmental degradation, the harmful effects of industrial emissions, influence on the organism of the components of tobacco smoke, etc.
Proven genetic predisposition to cancer disease of the lungs does not currently exist.
The result of the progression of the cancer in the lung tissue can be divided into several periods:
- biological period begins with the occurrence of cancers and continues until the appearance of the initial symptoms characteristic of the disease and confirm the methods of diagnosis;
- the preclinical period is characterized by a complete absence of symptoms that characterize the disease that leads to the exclusion of the probability of treatment a patient for medical assistance, for this reason decreasing the chance of early detection of the disease in the body;
- the clinical period begins with the first symptoms and the first complaints of the patient to macspecialist.
Patients with this type of cancer can live for 6 to 8 years without being treated, and not knowing about the presence in the body of the disease. When damage occurs to the organs of the respiratory system small cell lung cancer patients rarely live longer than 2 years since the start of cancers.
The Central tumor cancer localized in the large bronchi, which contributes to the fact that the symptoms of the disease appear in the early stages of the disease. Peripheral lung cancer is localized in the small bronchi. This leads to the fact that the disease develops over a long period without any symptoms. Often the identification is the result of a routine physical.
Symptoms and signs of cancer
The most early symptoms of peripheral cancer can be attributed to the occurrence of shortness of breath, frequent cough with hemoptysis, pain in the chest on the side of the damage. Whenfurther progression of the disease causes the temperature increase, there has been a release of a large volume of mucus, there are signs of poisoning the body.
The main symptoms are accompanied by the appearance of secondary signs of the condition. The appearance of these signs is the appearance of metastases in other organs of the body.
Among the most common symptoms arising from progression of peripheral cancer are as follows:
- syndrome neurosurgery;
- perifocal inflammation;
- pleural effusion;
- Pancoast syndrome;
- syndrome of compression of the mediastinum.
The formation of atelectasis occurs when there's a sprouting of tumor growths in the bronchi, which causes the appearance of pneumatization lung tissue.
The development of the syndrome of neuroleukemia occurs when there is metastasis of the tumor process in the brain. The progression of this patyrusiu is characterized by the appearance of paralysis of the nerves.
Perifocal inflammation occurs when the source of pneumonia at the perimeter of developing cancer of the hearth. The main symptoms of such disorders are the appearance of cough with abundant sliseobrazutee, the temperature rise and the occurrence of catarrhal symptoms.
The occurrence of such violations as pleural effusion, is very difficult to treat when using the method of pleural puncture. After the procedure there is a rapid re-accumulation of exudate, and the exudate becomes hemorrhagic in nature.
The manifestation of Pancoast syndrome occurs in the form of atrophy of the muscle structures of the upper extremity, in addition, this syndrome is manifested by pain in the region of the shoulder girdle. The occurrence of this syndrome due to apical progression of cancer metastases occur in the nerve fibers and vessels of the upper extremities.
The development of the syndrome of compression of the mediastinum describe the emergence of such symptoms as difficulty swallowing, pain in the chest and hoarseness.
Treatment of peripheral cancer
Treatment of peripheral forms of cancer depend on the degree of development of disease, size of tumor focus and its structure. Small cell variety of the disease is the most sensitive to methods of conservative treatment. The treatment of this cancer is done most often by the use of chemotherapy. Using this technique, you can achieve a good result for a long time.
Radiation treatment is used in case of a disease in its development of the third andthe fourth stage of the disease. The combination of the ray method with chemotherapy can achieve a positive result in the treatment of cancer. Most often the dosage during radiation therapy is about 60-70 gray.
The most effective method of treatment is the use of surgical treatment.
Depending on the stage of development of the disease are the following types of interventions:
- the lobectomy;
- removal of the tumor focus;
- removal of lung;
- combined operation.
Cancer of the respiratory system is a complex and sometimes unpredictable disease, for this reason, great importance has the process of diagnosing and identifying causes of disease.