The symptoms and treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx
Squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx predominantly affects male smokers over 45 years. The emergence of problems with swallowing, breathing, voice change should be the reason for going to the doctor-otolaryngologist and an oncologist. This is because the disease takes a long time without visible symptoms and any changes must be checked in order not to delay the disease. Hence such deplorable statistics - the majority of the patients reveal a cancer of the larynx on the third or fourth stage. Many patients do not attach importance to changes in the larynx, writing off all on chronic laryngitis, or smoker's cough. Moreover, the disease is moderate, without aggressive manifestations.
With early detection of the disease possible complete cure method, radiation treatment or it is possible to achieve a stable remission for many years. Starting treatment of this disease, first you need to get rid of the habit of Smoking, to change jobs, if the disease arose on this occasion.
The reasons for the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the throat (larynx)
Doctors will not be able with certainty to specify the exact causes of the disease, but found that some factors influence the occurrence of laryngeal cancer. These include:
- The disease develops mainly in men.
- Bad habits - drinking and Smoking.
- Age older than 60 years.
- Bad oral hygiene.
- The hereditary factor.
- Work in hazardous industries.
- The presence of other tumors in the neck or head or of papillomas and warts of the mucous membrane of the larynx.
- Chronic diseases of the larynx, tissue regenerates without stopping, from which there is a mutation in their cancer cells.
- Chronic changes in the larynx, associated with syphilis.
- The presence of cysts in the departments of the larynx.
Moreover, it is believed that the lack in the daily diet of fruits and vegetables affects the development of the disease. And the constant use of some products, such as salted meat. Additional causes that trigger squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx include the Epstein-Barr, which develops infectious mononucleosis.
Found that urban residents suffer from the disease much more often than their rural fellow citizens. This is due to the bad environment in the cities. There were cases when the cause of the disease was impossible to determine, but people who are at risk, should be regularlyexamined.
Symptoms of pathology
To the first signs of laryngeal cancer include the following symptoms:
- Ongoing pain in the throat that does not go a long time.
- Prolonged cough may experience bouts accompanied by shortness of breath and a feeling of suffocation.
- Pain when swallowing and eating food.
- Pain in the ears or one ear that lasts for a long time.
- The lack of air, shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, feeling that the throat is a foreign object.
- People rapidly lose weight nutrition.
- Voice changing scratchiness, hoarseness, inability to utter certain sounds for a long time.
- Swelling in the neck or above the collarbone, swelling in the lymph nodes.
- When you cough expectoration of a gray color streaked with blood and elements of the decomposing tissues.
Differentiated cancer is slower, the symptoms appear in the later stages, metastasis to other organs also appear in the later stages of the disease. Early diagnosis of this cancer gives you the chance for a full recovery.
Laryngeal cancer can be squamous keratinizing that is found in most of the cases. The tumor looks like a bumpy education with clear boundaries. Squamous neorogovevayuschy cancer is much rarer, with tumors observed ulcers and erosion.
Diagnosis of cancer of the larynx
Timely diagnosis of the disease plays an important role in the further course of the disease and success of treatment. Therefore, every man with hoarseness and cough of unknown origin, lasting more than two weeks, you must pass the test at the ENT. In addition, cheerleaders should be the feeling of being in the throat of a foreign body or unexplained pain in the ear, swollen lymph nodes.
In case of suspected cancer of the larynx, the audiologist will send the patient to microlaryngoscopy. If the tumor is epitheliomas vocal cords, it affected a bunch and there is swelling. In other types of cancer of the larynx are observed knobby education, painted red. In infiltrative cancer of the larynx, the vocal cords are thickened, if you are sensing, then there is bleeding from the throat. In other cases, cancerous growths can wear polypoetry. An accurate diagnosis will help to put the biopsy, which is carried out simultaneously witha laryngoscopy. If histological examination is denying the cancer, but symptoms suggest otherwise, we applied intraoperative diagnosis.
Also studies voice, they assess the mobility of the vocal cords determine the shape of the glottis, etc. x-rays and computed tomography reveal the spread of cancer. Ultrasound shows the presence of metastases.
How to treat malignancy of the larynx?
Treatment must be carried out by an experienced oncologist. After the diagnosis of the chosen method of drug and radiation therapy. In severe cases, shows the operation to remove the tumor.
If the disease is at an early stage, it is only exposure. With the increased tumor applied a combined method of treatment removes the tumor, followed by radiotherapy. In the later stages of the disease is applied laryngectomy. In this method, cut a part of the larynx or done a complete excision, continue to apply radiotherapy. Surgery to remove the tumor provides the following ways of removing surrounding tissues:
- Excision of the vocal cords.
- The removal of the Department over the ligaments.
- Excision of part of the larynx.
- The larynx is removed completely.
Even if the larynx is removed, the patient can be taught the conversation with blowing sounds. This will be taught by specialists. Chemotherapy after surgery is an additional way of dealing with metastases. Chemotherapy is used in the case of inoperable tumors in a supportive and analgesic treatment.
Forecast and prevention of cancer of the larynx
If left untreated squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, the life expectancy is with this diagnosis from one to three years, sometimes a little more. The cause of death may be the following manifestations of the disease:
- Cancer cachexia.
- If the tumor involves the great vessels of the neck, then comes arrosive bleeding.
- Complications in the respiratory Department in the form of pneumonia or pleurisy.
- Distant metastasis.
If to diagnose the disease and begin treatment, the first stage of cancer the survival rate is over 90%, with the second stage - 80%, third a little more than 60%.
Don't forget that in the case of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx time can solve many problems. Therefore, it is very important to undergo a medical examination and not to ignore even small changes in the throat.