The symptoms and treatment of lung cancer
The symptoms of lung cancer that manifests in adults and children taking into account the stage of the disease. Malignancy develops in the background of bronchial cancer or alveolar tissue.
The first signs of cancer appear in the form of dry cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, high body temperature, weakness. Symptoms of lung cancer at a late stage are presented in the form of Horner's syndrome, dysphagia, facial swelling, enlargement of peripheral lymph nodes.
Common symptoms of cancer physicians include:
- Cough occurs among 70-90% of patients. First, it is of a dry nature, then intense. However, there is purulent-mucous sputum or blood.
- A sharp pain in his chest.
- Shortness of breath is manifested in the penetration of cancer cells into different parts of the lungs.
- High body temperature is observed in patients with Central lung cancer.
If the tumor has spread to the tissues and organs of the chest or to the lymph nodes, then the patients have the following symptoms of lung cancer:
- Horner's syndrome occurs in lesions of the apex of the lung. The patient narrowed pupils, lowered upper eyelids, the eyeball is displaced inwards.
- Dysphagia - esophageal cancer is observed difficulty swallowing liquids and food.
- Husky voice - evident in the defeat of the left lung, recurrent nerve, and aorta.
To recognize lung cancer associated with distant metastasis, according to the following criteria:
- When the CNS is observed dizziness, poor eyesight, nausea, vomiting.
- For lymph node metastasis is an increase in cervical lymph nodes.
- If you lose bone there is a pain in the back, pelvis and hips.
- For metastases in the liver characterized by the appearance of pain in the liver area. Some patients diagnosed with jaundice.
Causes and risk factors
Experts identify the following reasons of cancer development:
- genetic background;
- chronic diseases of the lungs;
- the emission of radon;
- contact with cadmium, asbestos, arsenic and other dusty components;
- the chronic form of tuberculosis.
Doctors there are several forms and types of tumors. If cancer cells are detected in the center of the lung where vessels, nerves and large bronchi, then the patient suffers from Central cancer. In peripheral localization of the cancer cells are located on the sides of the body. Expertsthere are the following forms of tumor:
With the help of the microscopic structure of cancer cells doctors determine the rate of growth of a malignant tumor, the location of the first focus, aggressiveness. Oncologists are the following stages of disease:
- the first is the diameter of the tumor is 3 mm;
- the second is the diameter of the tumor ranges from 3-6 mm;
- third - tumor diameter greater than 6 mm;
- fourth - the size of the tumor is not considered because it went beyond the chest and began to infect adjacent organs.
Forecast reporting illness
Lung cancer is difficult to detect in the early stages. With the help of special diagnostic equipment oncologists identify this disease is at stage 3-4. In this case, surgical intervention is considered ineffective as the cancer spread beyond the respiratory system.
For early diagnosis of the tumor in the lung doctors use the following methods:
- CT - examination of the breast, lasts for 8-10 seconds. If necessary, this technique is used for complete examination of the patient with the aim of identifying foci 1 and 2 stages. Using computed tomography can detect the tumor with a diameter of 3 mm. If necessary, under construction 2-and 3-dimensional image.
- Positron emission and computed tomography - determine the sensitivity and specific characteristics of cancer cells. With the help of this technique, is diagnosed with last stage lung cancer.
Diagnosis and syndromes
Syndrome hormonal disturbances observed in individual cancer ailments.
To make an accurate diagnosis, oncologists consider pulmonary, extrapulmonary and hormonal syndromes, typical for this disease. For the production of one diagnosis has the value of the presence of one symptom in all of these syndromes. To lung syndromes physicians include cough with blood, chest pain, dyspnea at rest, hoarseness and whistling. These symptoms are lasting. They are not amenable to treatment.
Extrapulmonary syndrome is manifested in lung cancer at the same time with the following symptoms:
- weight loss;
Such violations can be detected by laboratory tests:
- the high content of calcium in the blood;
- low level of sodium in the blood;
- a chronic skin rash.
The choice of research methods, the patient is an oncologist in each caseindividually.
Experts identify the following methods of treatment of lung cancer in adults and children:
- Surgical removal of the tumor.
- Chemotherapy (involves entering the inside or into a vein of a chemical preparation that prevents the growth of cancer cells).
- Radiation therapy (is the impact on mutation of cells hard types of radiation).
The above technique can be used as the sole method or in combination therapy. Small cell lung cancer, unlike other forms that are not amenable to surgical treatment. But it is sensitive to chemotherapy.
This technique is selected taking into account the stage of development of the disease. The patient is administered cytostatics, the action of which is directed to suppression of tumor growth. Such drugs include "Etoposide", "Nimustine", "Carboplatin", "Gemcitabine". These medications are used before surgery to reduce the diameter of the tumor. Rarely, this technique has a good therapeutic effect.
Modern treatment of lung cancer involves the use of hormonal and immunological techniques. Such therapy is used in rare cases because it is associated with the complexity of hormonal correction of some forms of cancer. Targeted treatment and immunotherapy are not effective to fight the disease for disorders of the immune system.
Modern methods of cancer treatment lung cancer include radiation therapy. It visually controls the radiation effect on malignant tumors. Damaged cells are exposed to and adjusted instantly. While there is movement of the load to the adjacent areas of damaged tissue.
Use the contact radiation exposure or technology brachytherapy is the delivery to cancer cells of specific substances. They reinforce the targeting effect of the rays on the damaged areas of the lung. Technology "smart knife" is a type of radiotherapy in which there is the exact impact of cyber-knife on the accumulation of cancer cells.
Under modern chemotherapy understand the labeling of the tumor. Using the technology of PDT to the affected areas take substances that increase the sensitivity of the laser to an external influence. This eliminates damage to healthy tissue. Minus new technologies is that they have an impact on the developing pathogenesis, preventing the pathological changes.
For the prevention of lung cancer use folk remedies. Oncologists are advised to stop Smoking and constant contact with dust carcinogens. Adults and children need to follow the diet, lead an active and healthy lifestyle. Onthe development of light lacquer the direct impact of environmental pollution. It is therefore recommended to regularly walk in the fresh and clean air.