Bronchiectasis: symptoms and treatment
Bronchiectasis is a disease with a chronic course, accompanied by the bronchi. Why there is bronchiectasis, treatment, peculiarities of manifestation and the ability to avoid its development - these points are of interest to many, especially patients with chronic lung disease.
Bronchiectasis may occur throughout the bronchial tubes and their separate area. Usually affects the bronchi of medium size, less process may occur in small and large. The affected area when it becomes inflamed, it becomes more thin and flabby, lost the desired tone. Throughout this area are small bags, they are filled with secret. Because the production of mucus increases, all contribute to infection and further inflammation and damage to the bronchus.
Causes and risk factors of the disease
The reasons for the development of the disease is considered to be the following factors:
- congenital defects of the structure of the respiratory system;
- respiratory tract infections (measles, whooping cough, tuberculosis, fungal, mycoplasmal, etc.);
- blockage of bronchus by foreign body compression by tumor or enlarged lymph node;
- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease;
- inhalation of harmful substances, and Smoking;
- genetic disorders (cystic fibrosis);
- immunological disease (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis);
- long and strong cough contributing to the increase of intrabronchial pressure;
- drug abuse, HIV infection.
Separately noted a congenital form of the disease, but it occurs much less frequently. According to statistics, men are more often sick women.
Symptoms and complications of the disease
The disease progresses with periods of exacerbation and remission. During exacerbation mandatory symptom is cough, with the characteristic that it appears in the morning after waking up and late evening. The amount of sputum depends on the degree of destruction of the bronchial tree and the pathogen. When the advanced form of the disease the sputum may be purulent, and its number reaches 500 ml, when coughing it goes to “mouth full”, contains streaks of blood.
With the development of bronchiectasis fingers take the form of “drum sticks”, developed shortness of breath on exertion and then at rest. Sometimes in the distance you can hear wheezing whenbreath. Symptoms of bronchiectasis can often be recurrent pneumonia, bronchitis. In very advanced cases almost always involved the cardiovascular system and develops heart failure. Often the disease is complicated by the appearance of chronic bronchitis, asthma, pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema and respiratory failure.
Diagnosis and treatment of the disease
The doctor may suspect bronchiectasis if you have typical complaints of the patient and presence of comorbidities. To clarify the diagnosis is plain radiography of the lungs, but the most accurate and reliable diagnosis helps computer diagnostics. After installation, accurate diagnosis to determine the root cause. To that end, a determination of the amount of immunoglobulins in the blood, sputum, nasal discharge and sweat (to detect possible cystic fibrosis). Sometimes requires a bronchoscopy to detect tumors, foreign bodies in the bronchi.
Treatment of bronchiectasis can begin after the survey and the diagnosis. Antibiotic treatment sensitive to the microflora of the thin phlegm means (mucolytics). Antibiotics are used both in the form of injections and inhalations. Absolutely contraindicated drugs that suppress the cough. Actively apply physiotherapy (therapeutic exercise, body position promotes better expectoration of sputum).
All patients are recommended a diet with a high content of calories, multivitamins, immunomodulators and healthy way of life, as the immune status is very important in the course of the disease. In some cases it is necessary to use corticosteroids.
The ineffectiveness of treatment, deterioration, development of pulmonary hemorrhage is the surgical treatment. Usually resection (removal of part) of the lung. When bilateral localization of the process operations are carried out in two stages, with an interval of 3-4 months. The total damage to the lungs possible to carry out organ transplantation.
Treatment of bronchiectasis is aimed at preventing the emergence of a new bronchiectasis.
Eliminate existing impossible by any means - neither pharmacological nor folk.
Even in the period of remission the recommended breathing exercises, therapeutic exercises, observance of regime and a complete rejection of Smoking, including passive.