The reasons of development and symptoms of bronchiectasis
Bronchiectasis presents changes in the bronchi irreversible, which is the development of purulent process and functional disability. The disease is manifested by multiple symptoms and require timely expert intervention.
The factors of formation of a purulent process
The reasons for the formation of the pathological process of primary type associated with the presence of malformations. This is manifested in the dysplasia of the bronchial wall, that is, it is underdeveloped. However, cases of congenital bronchiectasis disease are rare.
More likely to have acquired bronchiectasis. They are due to previous pulmonary infections encountered in childhood. This applies to chronic deforming bronchitis, pneumonia, lung abscess or tuberculosis. In some cases, is the development of the disease if aspirated into the lungs and bronchial tubes outside of the body.
A chronic form of inflammatory process leads to changes in the bronchial tree, which only contributes to the extension of the affected bronchi. There is a shrinkage of the parenchyma of the organ that is the result of suffering pneumonia, bronchitis, abscess, tuberculosis and other diseases. Eventually, the fabric begins to stretch, deform, there is a loss of nerve endings, capillaries and arterioles. The last exercise nutritive functions, give bodies the right components. In disorders of this process worsens, affecting the overall condition of the lungs.
Bronchiectasis cylindrical and fusiform impress medium and large bronchi, while the saccular affect small. Uninfected types of bronchiectasis may not manifest itself for a long time. In the event of infection begins to develop inflammation, the filling of the bronchi with sputum purulent type.
Signs of the disease
The main symptoms of the disease are associated with persistent cough and purulent sputum, which has an unpleasant odor. Peak sputum falls on the morning. When positioned correctly can be drainage. The patient should be placed on the affected side and head down.
The cough does not let the patient throughout the day, as the accumulation of phlegm is its activation. Although the function of cough ispositive, but in this case, much tension may cause the rupture of blood vessels in the weakened wall of the bronchi. This leads to the appearance of blood when you cough, and if injured more than a large vessel, bleeding inside the lungs.
In the chronic form the inflammatory process patient exhibits symptoms of poisoning and exhaustion. Is the development of anemia, the patient's skin becomes pale, the patient loses weight and feels the weakness of General nature. If there is bronchiectasis in children, it is lagging behind in sexual and physical development.
Develops and respiratory failure, leading to shortness of breath, cyanosis, and deformation of the breast cells and thickening of the terminal phalanges of the fingers. Duration of exacerbations and the frequency of their occurrence depend on the severity of the disease. In this period the patient again there is cough, pain in the chest, increased body temperature and sweating, reduced efficiency and appetite.
At the stage of remission of symptoms subside some. The patient may experience cough with allocation of a small amount of sputum, but the symptoms may not occur completely. Thus, the symptoms of the disease depend on the stage and form of the disease.
Detection of the disease
Starts diagnosis, as in any case, with a General inspection. The doctor examines the chest, uses a stethoscope to listen to the body, then begins collecting history. It is important to clarify whether it is allocated periodically the pus of the patient and what diseases you had before.
Performs a physical examination that shows dullness on the affected side of inflammation of the percussion sound and the lag in the breathing mobility of the body. Need to do sputum test and General blood test. This applies to biochemical studies of blood.
Use the radiograph. Lateral and direct projection of the patient detected by the deformation pulmonary drawing is cellular. In an endoscopic method of examination reveals a purulent secret viscous type. You can use this material for bacteriologic analysis and Cytology. Possible to establish the place where the bleeding. Preparing to use bronhografii.
Bronchography allows to accurately determine the lung disease. The technique is recognized as the most accurate and reliable among the methods of diagnosis. Specified form of the disease, its location and the extent of bronchiectasis. Is introduced into the bronchial tree, the soft catheter, thenfills the space of the bronchi special substance. It is necessary for the shots. In addition to these methods of diagnosis are used fiber-optic bronchoscopy, computer tomography megaseta, and for the study of respiratory function - spirometry and peakflowmetry.
Methods of eliminating disease
In the acute stage, the treatment is aimed at suppressing the development of purulent process and the redevelopment of the bronchi. To achieve postanovlenii problems used bronchoscopic drainage and therapy with the use of antibiotic drugs.
Administration of antibiotics is carried out parenterally, i.e. intramuscularly and intravenously, and during the implementation of the sanation bronchoscopy - endobronchial. While chronic forms are used penicillins semi-synthetic type, cephalosporins and Gentamicin. Use the following drugs:
- The Ceftriaxone.
To the drainage of sputum was carried out better designate additionally, the chest compressions, drinking on the basis of alkalis, inhalation, breathing exercises, expectorants drugs and electrophoresis type. If disease can use lavage bronchus - bronchoalveolar lavage. Is used and aspiration of pus, which uses a bronchoscope. Therapeutic bronchoscopy form allows you to perform the removal of pus, wash the bronchi and enter medications: bronchodilators, mucolytics, antibiotics. Possible and performing ultrasonic debridement.
An important component of treatment is nutrition. The patient's diet must be complete and contain protein fortified products. With this purpose, you enter the cottage cheese, meat, fruits, juices, fish and vegetables.
Surgical technique is applicable in the absence of contraindications. It concerns the availability of bilateral bronchiectasis, pulmonary heart disease and other complications. During the intervention the removal of the part of body which has been altered by the disease process. Some situations also require emergency intervention of the surgeon. This applies to heavy bleeding that does not stop.
Complications and prevention
Complications should be divided into two categories: pulmonary and extrapulmonary. The first group consists of amyloidosis and sepsis. Amyloidosis is characterized by the appearance of deposits in different organs of the patient. These depositsis the amyloid - protein, which occurs in chronic inflammation. Such leads to the development of violations, crashes functions of the organs, which is an amyloid. With regard to sepsis, this process develops in contact with pathogenic bacteria and their toxins produced in the blood. In this way develops blood poisoning.
Pulmonary complication presented a large list. The most common is the formation of bleeding due to rupture of large vessels. In this case, can be carried out operation. There is a possibility of abscess development - limited focus, which is inflammation. The result of the inflammatory process becomes molten and formed tissue cavity with pus.
No less dangerous and gangrene. There is a loss of the body tissues, the inflammation has no limitations so it can grow until the death of the patient. The patient may have difficulty breathing, which is manifested in a disturbed passage of air through the bronchi. It bronchoobstructive syndrome. The complication manifests itself through shortness of breath, difficulty breathing and develops a sense of failure of the incoming air. When breathing and ingress of air into the pleural cavity develops spontaneous pneumothorax. Such occurs due to rupture of lung sections that underwent a structural change.
Bronchiectasis may be warned, if you follow the rules of prevention.
During epidemics it is recommended to use masks and wash your hands often, especially after a long stay in crowded places. You should limit your visit to those places.
To boost the immune system you need to take the appropriate means. You need to immediately treat lung disease, and not wait for the formation of complications. To prevent infection, it is useful to get vaccinated in the autumn.