The blood test in pulmonary tuberculosis
Pulmonary tuberculosis is a very dangerous disease in which difficulty breathing and the intoxication of the organism. The blood in pulmonary tuberculosis allows to detect the resistance of the immune system to bacterial action.
Testing for tuberculosis
Upon the slightest suspicion of tuberculosis should be promptly tested. This will help to identify the disease in the early stages of its manifestations and to raise the efficiency of medical treatment. In pulmonary tuberculosis following methods are used for its diagnosis:
- sputum lungs;
- blood test;
- the x-rays.
Collecting lung sputum is the most accurate method of diagnosis but her treatment is quite long and ranges from 2 to 8 weeks. The selected sample is placed in a special container, which creates favorable conditions for bacteria growth. If at the end of the procedure revealed the growth of harmful bacteria, this indicates the presence of the disease.
Most often pulmonary sputum collected in the morning, before that 12 hours should be terminated food intake and reduced fluid intake. In the morning, not brush your teeth and rinse your mouth, as this will not allow to collect reliable information. If, after conducting this analysis, the patient detected by the TB, then re-examination. This will help to eliminate the error and more accurately determine the stage of lung disease.
Bronchoscopy is performed with a special instrument called a bronchoscope. It has the shape of a tube, the diameter of which is 7-9 mm and length of 60-100 mm. in Order to facilitate introduction into the body and to avoid mechanical damage of the larynx, the tube make flexible.
The bronchoscope is inserted through the mouth or nose into the trachea and lungs. It enables doctors not only to take sputum for analysis, but also to assess the condition of the respiratory system. A similar procedure is performed under local anesthesia. If you are using a device with a flexible tube, General anesthesia is used.
For 8-12 hours before the procedure, you should refrain from taking food and water, medicines, blood thinners (aspirin, paracetamol, etc.). In addition, you need to use the support of a loved one, as to move independently after the procedure very difficult.
Diagnosis by analysis of blood
Analysis of blood during tuberculosis infection allows you to definethe presence of antibodies able to resist disease. This assessment will help to understand the degree of resistance of pathogenic bacteria. But with the help of a blood test cannot identify the stage of tuberculosis.
Modern medicines allow 2 blood test - QuantiFERON test and T-SPOT analysis. With their help, you can check the secretion of interferon-gamma. Such procedures have a high accuracy, which can reach 95%.
The advantage of blood tests is that there is no need to take them again. That is, patients must come to the hospital only 1 time, not 3-4 like it is necessary in the diagnosis of sputum. Checking your blood fluid on the Mycobacterium allows you to accurately diagnose TB even in those cases where the Mantoux test in humans is questionable. Test organism and for the presence of HIV and hepatitis.
In addition to specialized blood held its General study.
This allows the doctors to assess the risk of complications. In addition, the method allows to estimate the ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate) and to identify how the body is able to resist the dissemination of Koch's Bacillus. While a healthy person should have the following indicators ESR: 2-10 mm/h in men and from 3 to 15 mm/h in females.
The detection of pathogenic bacteria in the human body is taken to check the urine. This will allow us to understand spread if the disease on kidneys and urinary system. Before passing urine, you should refrain from taking antibiotics and other similar drugs.
The conduct of a Mantoux test
The first test is to determine the presence of tubercle bacilli in the body, is the Mantoux test. It is conducted not only in children but also in adults who had contact with sick patients or are at risk. This is especially true of those people who have already suffered such affliction. In addition, long-term cough or lung disease a physician must be assigned to a similar examination of the patient patient.
To do this, under the skin on the forearm must be introduced a small amount of tuberculin. This substance is prepared from mycobacteria and proteins. At the site of inoculation there is a red spot, which will cause itching.
That stain is not recommended to wet and comb, as this will affect the test results. In that case, if the results of inoculation test are unsatisfactory, assigned other studies.
If a person has a strong itch turning into an ache, then to be put on the injection site a wet towel. The towel should be on the market no more5-10 minutes, so as not to cause seepage of fluid under the skin. Sometimes at the injection site may form a large swelling. In such case, you should immediately seek help from doctors.