What is a treated and whether the pulmonary tuberculosis?
Of all infectious diseases of great social significance is tuberculosis. If treated pulmonary tuberculosis? Despite technological progress, the introduction of new anti-TB drugs is late. This contributes to a very careful selection of treatment scheme of the disease for each patient. Today, tuberculosis is one of the most socially significant diseases. This is due to the following factors:
- widespread infection;
- the possibility of transmission from one person to another;
- high resistance of mycobacteria to environmental conditions;
- the difficulty of the treatment;
- the danger of isolating the causative organism in the environment.
What is the etiology, clinic and treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis?
Characteristics of the disease
Pulmonary tuberculosis is an infectious pathology caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Today about 2 billion people are infected by these organisms. While sore not everyone. It all depends on the immune status and the presence of concomitant somatic pathology. Every year revealed about 9 million new cases of the disease. A third of these patients die. Currently, the TB acquired pandemic spread, as it affects almost all continents of the world. The risk of Contracting each person has. In most cases, transmission is implemented by an aerosol mechanism. The greatest value of airborne transmission. It is implemented by sneezing, coughing, and simple conversation. Until recently, was the actual food route (ingestion of raw cattle milk).
The greatest epidemic danger to others are sick with active TB of the lungs, as in this situation, pathogenic microbes in large quantity stand out in the environment with phlegm. Risk factors of pulmonary tuberculosis is:
- long-term Smoking;
- the presence of HIV infection;
- irrational nutrition;
- the presence of diabetes;
- unsatisfactory accommodation;
- close contact with patients (living together, sharing a utensil).
For a long period of time pulmonary tuberculosis can be hidden. Clinically distinct forms of disease can cause the following symptoms:
- a slight increase in body temperature (up to 38 degrees);
- painful cough with sputum;
- reduction of body weight;
- discomfort and pain in the chest area;
- swollen lymph nodes;
- bleeding when coughing;
- shortness of breath.
Peculiarities of treatment of tuberculosis
Many wonder: does heal tuberculosis? The success of therapy depends on several factors: species of mycobacteria, the type of treatment and compliance of this scheme by the patient.
Undoubtedly, to take medication regularly for several months under force not to everyone. However, drug therapy is the main method of treatment of such patients. It is known that mycobacteria are resistant to even the most modern drugs.
Drug resistance is primary or acquired. The primary type of resistance occurs when specific therapy has not previously been conducted or have been) a short course (less than a month). Some M. tuberculosis resistant to only one anti-TB drug. In the case of monoresistance. In the case of resistance to two or more drugs we are talking about polirezistentnami. There is also multiple, cross and super-steadiness. In this regard, today the most popular such scheme of treatment, which applies from 4 to 5 drugs from different groups. Therapy consists of two phases: intensive treatment and prolonged. The first is to suspend the disintegration of the tissues and to eliminate infiltration. This stage lasts from six months to 2 years.
Principles of therapy
Pulmonary tuberculosis is treated successively, with observance of certain rules. The most important conditions for a successful recovery is the quality of the medication and regimen adherence. Many patients think that: if treated, then exactly recovered. It is important to the compliance with all recommendations of the doctor. Main principles of chemotherapy for tuberculosis infection is:
- the combination of pathogenetic and etiotropic treatment;
- the issue of phasing.
Equally important is an individual approach to each patient. The choice of medication is determined by the sensitivity of mycobacteria. This is directly before the treatment is done by inoculation on nutrient medium and antibiotic susceptibility is determined. Another important aspect of treatment is the control treatment. The easiest way – the presence ofmedical personnel near the patient during drug administration. Medications can be administered by injection. In addition, it is possible to determine the level of active substance in the urine.
The applied scheme of treatment
Tuberculosis is treated with such medicines as "Rifampicin", "Streptomycin", "Isoniazid", "Pyrazinamide", "Ciprofloxacin". In a four-part regimen used the first 4 of the above drugs. You can replace "Rifabutin", "Kanamycin", "Ftivazid", "Ethionamide". When pathcomponents scheme is additionally used drug from the group fluoroquinolones. This may be a "Ofloxacin" or "Ciprofloxacin". The preparations of the 1 series include the following drugs: Streptomycin", "Isoniazid", "Pyrazinamide", "Rifampicin", "Ethambutol". "Streptomycin" – the representative of the group of aminoglycosides. It has bacteriostatic effect. "Streptomycin is injected intramuscularly or intravenously. The most common side effects belongs ototoxic effect, impaired balance, dizziness.
"Isoniazid" is the most important drug against tuberculosis. It has a strong bactericidal effect. Most often, it is to be taken internally in pill form. Adverse effects include the development of hepatitis, fever, neuropathy, rash, anemia, and others. Slightly less effective is "Rifampicin". It is a semisynthetic antibiotic, is bactericidal. The mechanism of action is based on inhibition of RNA synthesis of microbial cells. Resistance to it is formed rather quickly. The weakest is "Ethambutol". In isolation it is not applied, it is effective in combination with other medications. In the case of a short course of treatment of the disease is indispensable "Pyrazinamide". If the effect of these drugs is missing, the doctor may prescribe "Capreomycin", "Cycloserine and other medications reserve.
TB drugs are not the only method of treatment. Great importance to strengthen the immunity of the body. With this purpose, appointed immunomodulators. These include Xymedon", "Glutoxim". To reduce the harmful effects of anti-TB drugs on the liver, the doctor may prescribe medications. Treatment also involves taking vitamins of group B, glutamic acid. When severe intoxication can be used glucocorticoids. Cured if pulmonary tuberculosis, if people use recipes? Home remedies can not be the main for the treatment oftuberculous infection. They are mainly used to strengthen the body. With this, you can use a tincture of the trefoil, a decoction of pine buds, fish oil, tincture of rosemary, a variety of teas based on medicinal herbs.
As for pathogenetic therapy, it involves adherence to diet, rest (intensive phase), frequent walks in the fresh air. Patients should stop Smoking and drinking alcohol.
Surgical treatment is carried out in the presence of tubercules, single cavity, cirrhosis of the lung.
The operation can be the deletion of the share or the whole lung resection, treatment of pneumothorax, the opening of the cavity.
Thus, at observance of all recommendations of the doctor, the tuberculosis can be cured, but it will take more than one month.