What is bronchitis: treatment in children
If diagnosed tracheitis, treatment for children is provided after doctor's appointments. It should be aimed at eliminating the main causes of the disease. The trachea is part of the lower respiratory tract. Despite this, tracheitis is a pathology of the upper tract. Often initially, the inflammatory process develops in the region of the pharynx, larynx, nasal cavity. Often detected combined lesions of the larynx and trachea - laryngotracheitis. From this disease affects both adults and children. Currently, the main symptom with which the children or their parents go to the doctor, cough is. What are the etiology, clinic and treatment of the disease?
Features tracheitis in children
Tracheitis is the inflammation of the trachea of different etiology. Often the disease has an infectious nature. Like many other organs of the respiratory system, the trachea inside is lined with a mucous membrane. The latter is very sensitive to various irritating substances. The main function of the trachea in children is the promotion of air directly to the bronchi and lungs. Tracheitis is an acute and chronic. The chronic form is divided into the atrophic, in which the mucosa becomes thinner, and hypertrophic where it thickens. The risk group includes young children (from six months to 3 years).
Tracheitis, combined with the defeat of the larynx, in the absence of therapeutic measures can lead to serious complications (narrowing of the larynx and obstruction). Inflammation of the trachea in a child can be primary and secondary. The secondary form develops on the background of various infectious diseases (influenza, parainfluenza, SARS, whooping cough). Inflammation of the trachea is characterized by the following changes in its mucous membrane: edema, redness, accumulation of various cells, hemorrhage, thickening or thinning.
In children, the defeat of the trachea can be caused by various reasons. The main etiological factors in the development of tracheitis in children are:
- the stay of the child in a room with low humidity;
- General or local hypothermia;
- allergic reaction;
- inhalation of cold air masses;
- passive Smoking;
- inhalation of fumes from varnishes and paints.
Predisposing factors include adverse environmental conditions, hypovitaminosis, decreased immunity. Causes of infectious tracheitis are various pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, Mycoplasma, chlamydia). From viruses the most important are respiratory syncytial virus, virusinfluenza and parainfluenza, adenovirus. Tracheitis may be a manifestation of measles or whooping cough. In the latter case the causative agent is Bordetella pertussis (whooping cough Bacillus). The acute form of inflammation is most often diagnosed in children of preschool age (from 5 to 7 years).
As for chronic bronchitis, it can cause the following factors:
- the presence of foci of chronic infection (rhinitis, sinusitis, pharyngitis);
- the presence of tonsillitis;
- the presence of adenoids;
- regular inhalation of irritants (cigarette smoke);
- the presence of caries or other dental pathology.
To a greater extent the risk of Contracting are children with chronic diseases accompanied by reduced resistance of the organism (diabetes, asthma, emphysema, tumors). In the case of infectious etiology tracheitis sick child can be a source of infection. Organized children attending schools and kindergartens, are more prone to this disease. The source of infection may be a carrier.
Acute inflammation of the trachea often has an infectious origin. The main symptoms are:
- unproductive cough;
- hyperthermia of the body;
- excessive sweating;
- pain in the head;
- sore throat;
- mucous discharge from the nose;
- feeling of stuffiness in the nose.
Cough most often appears 2-3 days after the symptoms of nasal inflammation. In most cases, a dry cough. It increases in the morning and night. It can become heckling. When involvement of the vocal cords is observed hoarseness. Over time, can separate the transparent, yellow or green sputum. Cough is weakened when the child is sitting, standing or moving. The flu can greatly increase the temperature. Thus catarrhal phenomena are mild. If untreated, acute bronchitis becomes chronic. The latter is manifested by a periodic cough, disturbing the children in the morning.
Separate allergic tracheitis. It occurs on the background of allergic reactions. This happens when the immune response to various foreign substances (foods, animal dander, pollen, and various odors). Allergies can be medicated. In allergic inflammation of the trachea sick children can submit complaints sore throat, itching, coughing. In this form of the disease, the cough occurs continuously. Often these childrenthere is frequent breath.
Before you treat tracheitis in children is required to put the correct diagnosis. Diagnosis includes:
- the collection of medical history by interviewing the child or his parents;
- auscultation of lungs;
- General inspection;
- measurement of pressure, pulse, temperature and respiratory rate;
- General and biochemical blood analysis;
- inspection of the oral cavity;
Common blood test can reveal the following changes: increase in the number of white blood cells, ESR acceleration. All of this non-specific signs of inflammation. Laryngoscopy allows you to determine the condition of the larynx and trachea. In atrophic tracheitis detected by the thinning of the mucous layer, reducing the amount of mucus. The mucous membrane is white or gray. A large amount of mucus, thickening of the mucosa, its reddening may indicate the presence of a child hypertrophic form of the disease. Radiological investigation is rarely.
During auscultative examination, the doctor can detect hard breathing, presence of wheezing. Tracheitis should be able to distinguish from laryngitis. Feature of is laryngitis is hoarseness. Cough, as if trachea - dry, but he's barking. Most often, laryngitis is rapidly moving in laryngotracheitis. Differential diagnosis is carried out with pneumonia. Inflammation of the lungs has a high temperature. In doubtful cases require x-ray examination. In young children, cough may occur with the ingress of foreign particles from the outside. This may appear cyanosis, difficulty of breathing, up to asphyxia. In the course of diagnostics it is also important to establish the root cause of tracheitis.
Treatment of tracheitis, the child is directed at the underlying cause. The most common cause is viral infection. Treatment of acute viral inflammation of the trachea involves the use of antiviral drugs and symptomatic therapy. Antiviral medications are not always effective, so they are rarely used.
Symptomatic treatment involves the use of cough drops, mucolytics, expectorants, antipyretics drugs.
Dry cough, the following remedies: infusion of liquorice, "Remens", "Pour", ".", "Codelac Phyto. For children it is preferable to use these funds in the form of drops or syrups.
Antitussives used short course. Their main task isto make a dry cough wet. Next, apply mucolytics and expectorants. These include "Mokobane", "ACC", "Ambroxol", "Bromhexine", "Ambrobene". To get rid child cough used inhalation. They can be steam or use a nebulizer. The latter option is preferable, as the steam can cause burns of the trachea in case of incorrect holding of the inhalation. Can be used various herbal infusions, and alkaline water. If there is no temperature disease treatment in children may include the use of mustard plasters and rubbing of the child. In the case of high temperature (over 38.5 degrees) displayed antipyretic.
For a more successful treatment of tracheitis in children, recommended physical therapy, strengthening the immune system by taking vitamins, optimizing nutrition, elimination of hypothermia. Antibiotics are used sparingly. Equally important is providing the optimum humidity, regular wet cleaning in the nursery. To cure tracheitis can home. With the development of complications (laryngospasm) children hospitalitynet.
Prevention of tracheitis
To prevent the development of tracheitis in children is required to follow certain rules:
- dress warmly in cold weather (wear a scarf, sweaters with a high collar, warm socks);
- to prevent General hypothermia;
- avoid contact with sick children;
- promptly treat other chronic diseases of the upper respiratory tract;
- do not smoke or consume alcoholic beverages;
- to lead a healthy lifestyle;
- take vitamins;
- eat more fresh fruits and vegetables;
- to harden;
- to walk and to breathe fresh air;
- avoid contact with allergens.
Your children should follow the parents. Thus, tracheitis in children is a frequent pathology. At the first symptoms is required to visit a doctor.