The symptoms and treatment of bronchitis in children
Treatment in children bronchitis is a long and complicated process which includes proper care of the baby: respiratory humidification, ensuring the flow of cool clean air, monitoring heart rate and respiration.
Bronchitis is one of the most common diseases in children. In medical terminology, distinguish between children's bronchitis, which occurs in preschool and school age, and bronchiolitis occurring primarily in infants and children up to 2 years. Used in the treatment of antipyretic, antitussive, mucolytic drugs.
Bronchitis in infants is a serious current, as even slight swelling of the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract and a small amount of mucus can reduce air flow and cause shortness of breath. The baby is breathing with obvious effort, and may have shortness of breath. When inflammation of the bronchi, the blood receives an inadequate amount of oxygen. So the baby should be placed in the hospital, where he will provide additional inflow of oxygen in the blood and will guide selection of suitable antibiotics for treatment.
Bronchitis: the incidence and cause of
Bronchitis in children and infants is a disease caused mostly by viruses. The main pathogens are viruses respiratory tract influenza, parainfluenza, adenoviruses, and rhinoviruses. The invasion of bacteria can occur after a viral infection. In connection with the pathogenesis of the observed seasonality of the disease bronchitis - most children sick in the period of late autumn, winter and early spring.
The Airways of children differ in structure from those of adults not only in size but also the action that causes changes in various diseases. Children's Airways are narrower lumen. This cause faster and more often leads to airway obstruction, that is, the narrowing of the lumen of the bronchi, causing shortness of breath and wheezing when breathing.
The mucous membrane of the bronchi in children has many more cells that secrete mucus in relation to the surface of the respiratory tract. In this regard, it is easier to close the lumen of the bronchi and difficulty in breathing during infection. Also the defensive system of the cells of the respiratory tract, as well as the entire immune system of the baby has not yet fully developed.
When it comes to the invasion of pathogenic microorganisms, e.g., viruses in the respiratory tract, changing the damage of bronchial epithelium cells by viruses. Increasing blood flow to the epithelium, and mucosal cells begin to produce excessgoo. There is swelling of the mucosa and appears excessive amount of secretions.
All these factors contribute to the reduction of the bronchial lumen. This is manifested shortness of breath, which the doctor can detect during the inspection.
Inflammation becomes a cause of a violation of the transport of mucus, which is one of the mechanisms of removal from the respiratory tract of microbes, contaminants and other irritants. Small children do not yet have an effective cough reflex, so the evacuation of the remnants of the secret is difficult, which further enhances the shortness of breath.
The symptoms of bronchitis in baby
Bronchitis in children - a disease that develops most often at the initial period of life, at the age of about 4 years.
In the initial stage of the disease when the amount of discharge of the inflammatory process is small, the symptoms of bronchitis are quite rare. When the infection grows in power, noises appear in the lungs and shortness of breath. Bronchitis can be acute or chronic. Acute bronchitis starts suddenly and unexpectedly, but short-lived. After about a week the disease is eroding, restores the epithelium of the bronchial muscles, but the cough may persist for some time as attacks occur, typically in the morning. Treatment for bronchitis in children with chronic character takes a long time.
Inflammation caused by viruses, not only covers the bronchi. As a rule, the disease is the upper respiratory tract. Initially the cough is dry and painful. This cough is unproductive, because in this stage the mucous membrane of the bronchi are not damaged. Haven't gotten to hypersecretion of mucus by the epithelial cells of the bronchial mucosa. At this time there may be difficulty in breathing and shortness of breath.
The next stage of development of the inflammatory process in the lower respiratory tract becomes increased production of mucous secretions. Then the character of the cough changes, it becomes wet. Wet cough is less intense than the previously formed dry. The emergence of a productive cough is a good sign, because it usually heralds the beginning of the recovery process. At this time, it is necessary to remember about proper hydration of the baby, because it helps liquefy secretions, facilitating its evacuation from the respiratory tract.
Useful in the treatment of bronchitis in children can be a Pat on the back. It does not have to exert much effort to the therapy was effective, but not painful and did not cause damage. You can apply vibration massage that is performed using special devices or manually. He isperforming short rhythmic strokes of the fingertips (motion pulse). This massage facilitates the expectoration of mucus.
The symptoms of bronchiolitis in children
Bronchiolitis is a disease that occurs predominantly in infants and children up to 2 years. The peak incidence is between 2 months to a year of life. The disease has the same etiology as bronchitis in children. The symptoms of bronchiolitis:
- the increase in frequency of breathing per minute;
- increased physical activity of breathing.
In order to assess whether the baby is breathing too fast, you should know the rules the number of breaths for this age. For children up to 3 months the norm is up to 50 breaths per minute, up to 6 months of age - up to 40 breaths per minute, and older children - up to 30 breaths. An additional symptom that occurs when the inflammation of the bronchi, is a fever.
Onset of the disease - inflammation of the bronchi in children is an infection with the common cold. Then joins fever and dry cough. The condition of baby deteriorates and comes to the breathlessness that is manifested by whistles and symptoms of increased effort of breathing. Another symptom indicating the severity of the disease, becomes cyanosis, manifested in the form of a violet-blue coloration of the lips and tongue. It can appear when the baby needs to make more efforts, for example, during feeding.
Both disease - bronchitis in children and bronchiolitis - demand examination, assessment of severity by the doctor and appropriate treatment.
Especially in the case of young children, when symptoms of obstruction of the respiratory tract, the bronchi may quickly occur, you should immediately seek medical help.
Treatment of bronchitis
In the treatment of these viral respiratory diseases, as bronchitis has dominated measures of therapy. How to treat bronchitis in a child? Should be aware of the humidification of the air in the room in which the patient resides. The baby should be isolated from the toxic effects of tobacco smoke and avoid contact with sick people. Do not expose it to sharp temperature changes. During treatment aerosol therapy. It is necessary to give medication to thin secretions into the bronchi by 17.00 to highlight, not interfere with sleep. Do not give syrups with antitussive effect, because they inhibit the excretion of the inflammatory secretion.
How to cure bronchitis in a child with antibiotics? Treatment of infants with antibiotics is carried out, as is often the cause of the disease is a bacterial infection. The decision to use antibiotics is made by the doctor. Always let yourdaze only assigned to the antibiotic prescribed by specialist doses. If you know the cause of bronchitis is a viral infection, treated with antibiotics are sometimes not necessary, depending on the General condition of the baby. During the fever the child should receive an antipyretic syrup. Be aware that drinking large amounts of fluids - breast milk (in the case of infants), water, juice or diluted juice. Have a small allergic inflammation of the bronchi narrows the Airways, and baby may have breathing problems. This so-called obstructive bronchitis. The baby should receive medications that expand the bronchi.
In addition to medication, you can apply a few proven ways in the home to facilitate treatment in children bronchitis:
- when laying baby to bed, place its head higher than the rest of the body to facilitate breathing;
- use inhalation, moistening the respiratory tract, from time to time around a child you can spray the spray of sea water; if cough is very busy, very close with the baby for approximately 5 minutes in the bathroom with steam to hot water add a few drops of eucalyptus oil, a bag of sage or chamomile.
Children with poor resistance to viruses, bacteria and chronic diseases are complications from inflammation of the bronchi. The most common complications are pneumonia and pneumococcal infection of the lungs.
Complications arising in chronic inflammation of the bronchi, are hypertrophy of the right ventricle of the heart, emphysema, obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma.