Basal pulmonary fibrosis: what is this disease and how to treat such a disease?
Some people are interested in the question: basal pulmonary fibrosis - what is it? What are its causes and what is the danger?
Basal pulmonary fibrosis is a disease that develops as a result of pathological factors, with lung tissue grows and replaced by connective tissue, losing its function. Is the deformation of the pathological area of the body, it condenses and shrinks. This disease is found in people of all ages, but is most susceptible to it the male population.
The etiological factors of development of the disease
Basal view of pulmonary fibrosis can manifest as a symptom of some diseases or their outcome. A disease occurs as a result of various causes, the most common of which are:
- infectious agents entering the lung tissue and trigger the development of inflammatory process: viruses, fungi, tuberculosis;
- chronic inflammation of the bronchi and their surrounding tissue, protracted obstructive pulmonary disease;
- diseases that develop as a result of negative industrial factors, irradiation, inhalation of dust or different gases;
- inflammatory processes of allergic origin;
- disease Beck flowing in the pulmonary form;
- injuries to the thorax and lung tissue resulting from penetrating wounds;
- hereditary lung disease.
Incorrectly designated and ineffective therapy of these diseases occurring in acute or chronic form, can trigger the development of pulmonary fibrosis. A contributing factor is the lack of circulation in the small circle which occurs when there is failure of the ventricles of the heart, narrowing their cavities or the formation of blood clots in the pulmonary artery. The immunosuppressive state also contribute to the progress of the disease. In addition, this disease can develop after the action of ionizing radiation or reception pantropic drugs with toxic effects.
Pulmonary fibrosis develops if the treatment of the inflammatory process occurring in the respiratory system that are assigned incorrectly or the treatment is not completed. Then restore the lung tissue does not occur fully. Starts the growth of connective tissue in the form of scarring, which leads to a decrease of the lumen of the alveoli. According to the statistics of radical pulmonary fibrosis developsmost often in patients who have suffered pneumonia caused by staph infections. At the same time in lung tissue was observed the presence of abscesses and areas with necrotic cells, where after healing has grown connective tissue.
When fibrosis develops in pulmonary tuberculosis, the lung tissue grows connective tissue is formed about scarring and emphysema. As a result of chronic bronchitis develops perilously and peribronchial fibrosis. As a result of regular inflammatory process to the pleura and continuous compression condition of the pulmonary tissue, the pressure of fluid may develop pleurodynia pulmonary fibrosis.
The pathological process is formed as a result of violations of ventilation, disturbances in the pulmonary circulation and the cardiovascular system. There is a stagnation of lymph, the alveolar tissue is replaced by connective.
Concomitant factors of formation of the pathological process are:
- pneumonia lung in the acute period who did not receive effective treatment, a chronic inflammation of the lungs;
- chronic bronchial disease;
- stagnation of lymph in the lung tissue caused by heart failure and pathology of the mitral valve;
- chest injuries;
- connective tissue disease;
- the effect of radioactive ionization;
- action of chemical warfare agents on the lungs;
- taking medications such as Apressin;
- alveolitis idiopathic.
Pathogenesis and types of the disease
The development of the disease depends on the cause that provokes her. But despite the etiological factor determines the pathogenesis of defects in the blood and lymph circulation, lack of ventilation of the lungs, bronchi failure to perform their functions.
Pulmonary fibrosis klassificeret on the extent of the lesion in focal and diffuse. Alopecia is characterized by lesions of a small area of lung tissue with subsequent sealing. Cornification is a kind of focal pulmonary fibrosis, wherein the pathological site looks like raw meat.
Basal type of pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by proliferation of connective tissue in the basal parts of the organ, whence the name of the pathology. The formation of the pathological focus is preceded by degenerative and inflammatory processes that lead to loss of turgor and disruption of gas exchange in the affected area.
Local fibrosis, orlimited, you'll be hidden within. To identify it by using x-ray, and when listening to audible minor finely wheezing, breathing hard.
Pulmonary fibrosis that develops at the apex of the lung, is called the apical. In this case, as is typical for the disease, the alveoli are replaced by connective tissue. Detect pathology on x-rays.
Age-related pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by the appearance of changes in the respiratory organs in the aging process. Often this form is common among elderly smokers, while lung congestions are observed, although patients do not complain of discomfort.
Net pathology was observed during germination on the reticular connective tissue. At the same time on the computer tomogram it is possible to observe a mesh pattern of the lung.
Clinical signs of the disease
Primarily symptoms of underlying disease: pneumonia, bronchitis, allergies and other. When pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by the appearance of shortness of breath during physical exertion, and diffuse the process, she appears at rest. This condition is due to insufficient gas exchange in the body. There is a strong cough with allocation of mucus mixed with pus.
In the study to detect a reduction in the size of the lung and shift of percussion sound up, breathing gets tough, appear wheezing. With limited pathological disease process is virtually not bothering the patient, there is a periodic cough, and during the inspection of the thorax in the place of the hearth can be seen a slight depression.
Diagnosis is based on a comprehensive survey, including analysis of clinical symptoms and conducting x-rays.
Therapy basal pulmonary fibrosis
Treatment aimed at the elimination of etiological factor, the restoration of normal pulmonary ventilation and normalization of blood flow of the small circle, and to strengthen the immune system.
If the patient complains of elevated body temperature, necessary bed or polupostelny mode. Assigned diet, aimed at improving ventilation of the lungs, stimulation of hematopoiesis, and redox processes in the body.
Given oral corticosteroids for a long period. In the presence of inflammation used drugs, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial agents.
In addition, the treatment includes drugs to drain the phlegm, relieving bronchial spasm, cardiac glycosides, and vitamins.
From a General stimulating methods of treatmentapply:
- physical therapy;
- surgical treatment;
- treatment with oxygen;
- traditional therapy;
A very good therapeutic effect has kislorodolechenie by which the body is saturated with the missing oxygen needed for the normal flow of the oxidation processes, and physical therapy aimed at stabilizing and reducing the development of the pathological process.