When it is necessary to use vasoconstrictive drops in the nose?
Whatever the nature of the origin of a cold, the vast majority of people use nasal drops vasoconstrictor. In the kit of each man will be such drugs. They are able to instantly relieve the patient's condition, allowing him to breathe freely. The use of vasoconstrictor drops at bedtime helps the patient to sleep, and to sleep.
Providing normal nasal breathing, it is possible to prevent the development of other diseases. After a long breath through the mouth increases the load on the tissues of the middle and lower divisions of the pharynx. The value of vasoconstrictive drops is difficult to overestimate. But in the use of such drugs need to comply with the measure.
What are vasoconstrictor drugs
Vasoconstrictor nasal drops are called agonists. They narrow the blood vessels located in the nasal passages, and slow down the formation of mucus. Nasal drops vasoconstrictor reduces swelling of the mucous membranes of the nose and relieve congestion of the sinuses. They are effective in almost any cold.
Agonists do not cure a cold, but only relieve its symptoms. Their function is reduced to the normalization of nasal breathing and promote a speedy recovery.
At the same time, the abundance of mucus in the nose and lack of ventilation of the sinuses creates in the nasal passages optimal conditions for active reproduction of various pathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, when you use a vasoconstrictor, which provide at least minimal nasal breathing, the risk of complications is small. And disease passes easily and quickly. Pharmaceutical companies produce a large amount of vasoconstrictor drugs, which are intended for instillation into the nose and relieve symptoms of the common cold. Is Naphazoline, Galazolin, Otrivin, Nasik, Nazol, Rinorus etc.
The principle of action of vasoconstrictor nose drops
Decongestants act on the receptors sensitive to adrenaline. Irritated receptors reflex trigger mechanism for the excitation of the sympathetic nervous system, similar to that which runs in a stressful situation.
Under stress, the blood vessels in the body are much reduced. This reaction helps to reduce blood loss in case of any wounds.
In the same way the body reacts and vasoconstrictors.
Blood vessels the nasal passages sharply reduced and leads toto reduce swelling and inflammation. For the same reason, reduces the production of mucus.
Reaction to one-time or short use of vasoconstrictor drugs is just that. But if you apply the agonists too frequently or for a long time, the receptors reduce the sensitivity to them or lose it entirely. Is addictive to drugs. Unfortunately, the cancellation of funds doesn't come easy. Tissue of the nasopharynx begin to swell again, but not because of disease but because of the lack of the usual drops. Thus is formed the dependence of vasoconstrictor drugs. The application of drops already relieves symptoms and without getting worse.
In addition, during long-term use blood vessels become fragile and thinning.
Another negative quality of vasoconstrictor drugs is their tendency to dry mucous membranes of the nasal passages. The mucosa is covered with crusts, which interferes with the normal circulation of air. Parched mucosa is easily injured. It can cause sores and abrasions. In such conditions can easily develop secondary to a cold.
Depending on the active substance included in their composition, vasoconstrictors can be divided into several major groups:
- Funds fenilafrinom give very quick relief, but are long - about 2-4 hours. But they are less drying of nasal mucosa. Their gentle action reduces the risk of habituation and side effects. Because droplets with the same active substance recommended for treatment of the common cold in children and even newborns. Such drugs include Nazol Nazol Baby and kids.
- Drugs with indanazolina are more aggressive. The period of exposure is about the same as in the case of drugs with fenilafrinom. Indanazoline is active the active substance of Farial.
- Drops naphazoline are too short, but little longer than drugs with fenilafrinom, from 4 to 7 hours. To date, there is convincing evidence that such drugs can inhibit the action of the cilia of the ciliated epithelium of the nasal passages. On the basis of established drugs naphazoline Naphazoline, Sanorin, Okumetil, Nipasol and Betadrin.
- Decongestants with tetrizolina are similar to naphazoline feedback. They are also about 4-7 hours. This medication and visine Tizin.
- The action drops the active the active ingredient Xylometazoline longer. They relieve the symptoms of rhinitis for a period of up to 8 hours, but hard enough searthe mucous membrane of the nasal passages. These tools include Galazolin, Xylometazoline, Ringstop.
- Medicines with Oxymetazoline have the most lasting effect. Nasal breathing is maintained until 10-12 hours. At the same time they are very soft on the cilia of the ciliated epithelium. Oxymetazoline is the active the active substance of Noxprey, Oxymetazoline, Afrin, Nasivin, Laconia and drug is 4-way.
It should be noted that existing medicines are available in different concentrations. Is weakly concentrated products designed especially for children of different ages. Therefore, to assign a vasoconstrictor for the treatment of rhinitis should only doctor. It also determines and the period of treatment. It is strictly forbidden to exceed the recommended by doctor dose.
How to use vasoconstrictors
The use of drugs vasoconstrictor actions must be carried out according to the scheme suggested by the doctor. Depending on the severity of the disease the doctor will recommend use of the drug in 6, 8 or 12 hours. If the nose is breathing and you can do without vasoconstrictor drops, it is better not to use them.
An exception may be the use of drugs for the night. Difficulty in nasal breathing with colds may prevent the patient to fall asleep or to disturb his slumber. Often the nose is laid down after falling asleep and does not allow to sleep properly. So before going to sleep better in the nose drip. Especially when a child is ill.
The main indications for the use of a vasoconstrictor are:
- Complete obstruction of the nasal passages.
- The absence of ears for pain and congestion.
- Difficulty with mouth breathing.
- Shortness of nasal breathing on the background of increased temperature.
Apply vasoconstrictor drugs in allergic rhinitis is not recommended. This increases the sensitivity of the mucous membranes of the nasal passages to the substance - the allergen. And also reduces the body's ability to get rid of the stimulus through mucus secretion.
The use of vasoconstrictor drugs should not last more than a week.
The use of drugs in the form of sprays for children under 6 years not recommended. Because of the special structure of the children's nasopharynx such a form of the drug can cause inflammation of the Eustachian tube. It is best to use classical dropper for instillation of nose drops. Most often, children's products fitted with a special dosing device with which to buryin medicine little noses is very convenient.
Treatment of the common cold in babies may not require any treatment because of its physiological nature.
If the baby sleeps with his mouth open, this does not mean that he is not breathing nose. Newborn babies often sleep with my mouth open.
During pregnancy and during breastfeeding the use of vasoconstrictor drugs is not recommended. Their safety for kids today is not proven. In rare cases where such drugs it is impossible to do, the doctor will recommend a drug based on fenilafrina. The woman is strictly forbidden to exceed the recommended dosage by the doctor so as not to cause side effect of the drug. For example, the increase in blood pressure.
Side effects of vasoconstrictor drugs
Like other medicines, decongestants have side effects. In addition to the addiction they can cause insomnia, headache or nausea.
Their ability to raise blood pressure can be dangerous for patients with arterial hypertension or glaucoma. It is also not recommended to apply agonists in atherosclerosis.
The fragility and brittleness of blood vessels, as well as dryness of the mucous membrane of the nasal passages after prolonged use of vasoconstrictor drugs may lead to regular nose bleeding.
Abuse of these drugs contributes to the development of depression in the patient.
To reduce the risk of side effects, it is recommended that along with vasoconstrictor drugs use of folk remedies. Nose successfully fighting sea buckthorn oil.
Especially in combination with mint or menthol. The use of oil will reduce the risk of drying out of the mucous membrane of the nasal passages.