What are the symptoms of COPD and their character?
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) - is an insidious disease. The first symptoms of COPD the person may feel only after 5-10 years after the onset of illness. Usually by this time the disease enters its second stage of its development.
The main cause of COPD is Smoking, so the patient does not take the symptoms (cough, sputum, shortness of breath) for the disease, and considers it the cost of Smoking. To the doctor he does not hurry, thereby delaying treatment.
What triggers the development of COPD
The disease is chronic, bearing the inflammatory nature in the respiratory tract, not associated with allergic reactions. The disease occurs due to irritation of the respiratory system the lungs by toxic substances. It affects the bronchi and pulmonary parenchyma (respiratory tissue).
The disease develops due to exposure to harmful substances (dust and gas) on the respiratory system. Over time, the disease progresses, symptoms become more pronounced. The patient's condition deteriorates.
The mechanisms occurring in the lung following changes:
- education emphysema, in which there is swelling of the body and rupture of the walls of the alveoli of the lungs;
- in the bronchi causes irreversible obstruction, which is characterized by the obstruction of flow of air due to the fact that the walls of the bronchi become more and more thickened;
- respiratory failure becomes chronic and growing.
When a person is constantly breathing cigarette smoke, toxic gases or dust, airway inflammation begins. He destroys the tissue of the lung, responsible for respiration, forms emphysema destroys the natural protective functions of the body, its repair mechanisms. In the small bronchi fibrosis starts. The functioning of the respiratory system is disturbed, the flow of air reduces its velocity due to the delay in the lungs. The patient begins shortness of breath even at the slightest load. There are other signs of the disease.
According to statistics, in Russia every third man is a smoker, Smoking is the main cause of COPD. Who voiced their data - Smoking is the cause of death in 25% of cases ischaemia in 75% of cases of bronchitis and obstructive pulmonary disease.
Smoking, together with the impact of harmful industrial substances increases the risk of COPD. Against this background, developing one of the severe forms, leading to irreversible processes and death, which occurs from failure of respiration.
Worldwide, the disease is one of the maincauses of death.
What are the signs and symptoms of the disease
The presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be suspected by continuous cough, dry or with phlegm, shortness of breath.
These characteristics are not grounds for diagnosis of the disease, but if you have them and join them risk factors, the doctor most likely suspect the patient has the disease.
The first symptom of COPD is chronic coughing. Typically, the patient does not associate it with any disease. For him it is just a consequence of Smoking, environmental pollution. In the beginning of COPD cough is manifested at times. Gradually the patient begins to cough daily. A dry cough or with phlegm.
The main symptom is shortness of breath during physical exertion. The patient overcomes heaviness in the chest, suffocation. He doesn't have enough air, you have to put a lot of effort to breathe.
Sputum, otraslevaya patient viscous. It stands out a bit. If it has pus, it probably came to an exacerbation of the inflammatory process in the respiratory system. The cough will continually torment the patient for several years, leading to shortness of breath. The decrease in flow rate of air in the bronchi can occur without the development of chronic cough and sputum discharge.
In addition, the following symptoms of COPD: weakness throughout the body, constant illness, worsening of mood, excessive irritability, weight loss.
That can detect the doctor, examining the patient
When chronic obstructive pathology is just beginning to develop, patient survey will reveal some abnormalities that are usually observed in this disease. Gradually, the swelling of the lungs increases, impaired patency of the bronchi. At this time, the patient begins to show deformation of the body, the chest becomes barrel-shaped, extended in the front-back dimension. The level of swelling affects the strength of the deformation.
All patients with this diagnosis are divided into two types:
- pink puhalskii" - they have more symptoms of bloating;
- "blue tecnici" - they have at the fore the signs of obstruction.
In both groups the presence of those and other characteristics required.
If the disease has gone away, the patient loses muscle mass and, consequently, weight. If the patient has obesity, muscle mass is still declining.
Due to the long work of the respiratory muscles gets tired. If the patient is poorly nourished, then the process is compounded. The movement of the abdomen indicates fatigue of respiratory musclesduring inspiration, its front part is retracted.
Lividity of the skin shows that a person's blood lacks oxygen. Also he has respiratory failure. A medical emergency requires that the patient's condition in which he is lethargic, sleepy or too excited. This is evidence of oxygen deficiency that threatens life.
Methods of diagnosis of the disease
The doctor examining the patient early in the disease receives little information. If you use the method of percussion, box sound is heard. Auscultation of lungs at the moment of escalation will allow the doctor to hear the dry whistling, or wheezing.
If the study takes place in a period of great development of the disease, the specialist will see a significant swelling of the lungs and violation of the patency of the respiratory system.
In the study the doctor will find the patient a lot of signs of COPD:
- when percussion - a box sound;
- the lack of movement of the diaphragm;
- the rigidity of breast cells;
- weak breathing;
- wheezing, whistling or humming kind of scattered nature.
The diagnosis is confirmed by instrumental diagnostic and laboratory studies.
Is spirometry, which examines the functionality of the lungs.
Detected speed of air in the bronchi, irreversible obstruction, as indicated by the fact that the bronchi by inhalation is not able to expand.
X-rays and CT scans are also used for diagnostic purposes, but they are used in order to exclude other disease of the lungs, with symptoms similar to COPD .
Estimated level of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. For a small amount of oxygen inhalation is assigned to them.
What are the principles of treatment of the disease
During treatment, patients should follow some recommendations:
- smokers should quit Smoking as drug therapy while Smoking does not make sense;
- to facilitate withdrawal from tobacco should be taken nicotinamidase means in the form of patches, inhalers, sprays, etc.;
- to take medication to expand the bronchi (bronchodilators) to minimize shortness of breath and bloating;
- use roflumilast, this is a fairly new remedy against COPD, it reduces inflammation in exacerbations;
- the small amount of oxygen in your blood, you need to undergo long-term oxygen therapy;
- at reduced level of breathing using the nebulizer compressor nebulizer;
- with purulent sputum with antibiotics and expectorants on prescription;
- complete the programpulmonary rehabilitation;
- annual vaccination against influenza and against pneumococcal to prevent infectious exacerbations in patients with COPD.
It is important to perform preventive measures. And again in the first place is Smoking cessation. If the patient works in hazardous work, it is necessary to observe all precautions and safety measures. You should not work there in excess of the permitted time norms.
For a child the problems began with my lungs to him since childhood need to lead by example a healthy lifestyle and to instill intolerance and aversion to tobacco.